Please rephrase all the paragraph on the attached file by your own word.
As we are not allowed to copy and past and all the paragraphs are copy & past.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Theories and empirical studies on newcomer socialization have made illuminating progress over the last two decades. In this chapter, I review advances in the field of newcomer socialization and social networks that serve as the theoretical basis for this study.
a. Conceptualization of Newcomer Socialization
Organizational socialization and newcomer adjustment have been the main topics in studies of newcomer socialization.
Organization socialization is the process by which new individuals in the organization learns new attitudes, behavior, and knowledge in order to assume different roles in an organization (Van Maanen & Schein, 1977). As he refers it the process by which newcomer is taught and “learns the ropes” of a particular organizational role.
Organizational socialization plays an important role in newcomer adjustment and transmission of the organizational culture (Ashforth et al., 2007). In addition to role change and person change, socialization can affect a variety of constructs that reflect newcomer adjustment.
Adjustment is one organization socialization outcome and it conceptualized as the distal outcome of socialization, which contrasts with the primary changes .
To help organizations socialize newcomers and to help newcomers self-socialize more effectively, we must better understand how organizational tactics and newcomer proactivity contribute to effective adjustment(Fang, R., Duffy, M. K., & Shaw, J. D. (2011)
(Hatmaker, Deneen M 2015) define types of adjustment affected by newcomer networks: (1) knowledge-based adjustment, in which newcomers gain the information and skills needed to become productive organizational members; (2) social adjustment, in which newcomers accrue social capital and attain a sense of belonging and person–organization fit.(Hatmaker, Deneen M 2015)
Empirical research has also highlighted the importance role of insiders, especially peers and supervisors, for helping newcomers to acquire information and “learn the ropes” (Morrison, 1993; Ostroff & Kozlow- ski, 1992).
In this study, I use newcomer socialization as an umbrella term including both newcomer adjustment and organizational socialization.
b. Brief Review on Newcomer Socialization
Previous studies on newcomer socialization have explored a wide range of antecedents that facilitate newcomer adjustment to new roles and organizations.
First, organizational socialization studies have focused mainly on organizational socialization tactics: “the ways in which the experiences of individuals in transition from one role to another are structured for them by others in the organization” (Van Maanen & Schein, 1977).
Socialization researchers have attempted to categorize organizational socialization tactics. Table 1 ( add the Table form OS Model File) provides an overview of organizational socialization tactics dimensions by Van Maanen and Schein (1977) and Jones (1986).
Van Maanen and Schein (1979) defined organizational socialization tactics along six dimensions: organizational socialization tactics into context (1) collective vs. individual, (2) formal vs. informal, content (3) sequential vs. random, (4) fixed vs. variable, and social tactics (5) serial vs. disjunctive, and (6) investiture vs. divestiture.
Later, Jones (1986) conceptualized socialization tactics along a single continuum with institutionalized socialization (collective, formal, sequential, fixed, serial, and investiture tactics) on one end and individualized socialization (individual, informal, random, variable, disjunctive, and divesture tactics) on the other.
Briefly, under institutionalized socialization, newcomers have access to structured forms of modeling and social support; they undergo common learning experiences as part of a cohort, with clearly defined, sequenced, and timed training and orientation activities. Under individualized socialization, newcomers are exposed to learning experiences individually, informally, and sporadically; they define situations on their own without help and feedback from experienced insiders (Ashforth & Saks, 1996; Bauer et al., 2007; Jones, 1986;).
According to (Wanberg, C. (Ed.), 2012), The structured events of institutionalized socialization have five features, typically absent in unstructured events, which facilitate learning and adjustment. First, the developmental experiences are designed to be cumulative, such chat the learning, role clarity, cask mastery, and possibly social integration and role crafting build in a logical progression. In contrast, more haphazard events essentially randomize lessons and make cumulative learning and adjustment more difficult. Indeed, newcomers are forced to respond in real time, whether they are prepared or not. Second, institutionalized socialization includes “instructors,” such as occupational veterans and HR professionals, who not only provide constructive feedback but help newcomers make sense of their experiences in a manner consonant with organizational interests.
Conversely, the opposite tactics- individual, informal, random, variable, and disjunctive-represent the absence of structure and therefore compel newcomers to learn on their own. Jones (1986) dubbed this approach individualized socialization.
To illustrate more in each tactic (put starting sentences for the below paragraph as it is explaining each tactic),
Five of the tactics-collective, formal, sequential, fixed, and serial-tend to covary (Ashforch, Saks, & Lee, 1997), providing newcomers with relatively structured practices designed to shape the nature and sequence of experiences and the meaning derived from those experiences. Indeed, because these tactics encourage newcomers to learn and enact “the organization way,” (Wanberg, C. (Ed.), 2012)
Jones (1986) also argued that the two ends of the six continua will produce different role orientations. That is, he grouped the six socialization tactics at one end (individual, informal, variable, random, disjunctive, and divestiture) and identified them as individualized socialization tactics because they are more likely to produce innovative role orientations.
In other words, institutionalized socialization tactics are relatively more systematic than are individualized socialization tactics. As two recent meta-analysis studies demonstrated (Bauer et al., 2007; Saks et al., 2007), organizational socialization tactics strongly predict newcomer adjustment.
That is, newcomers who experience organizational socialization tactics are more likely to adjust successfully. In addition, among the three categories of organizational socialization tactics, context tactics were the weakest predictor. Although most empirical studies have demonstrated that institutionalized socialization tactics positively affect newcomer socialization, the effects of individualized tactics are still less clear (Fang et al., 2011).
In addition Chao, O’Leary-Kelly, Wolf, Klein, and Gardner (1994) identified six content areas of organizational socialization. People were better socialized into their organizational roles when they learned about (a) performance proficiency, or learning to perform the job successfully; (b) Specific language related to organizational acronyms and jargon; (c) Relationships and how to get along with other organizational members; (d) Power structures and organizational politics; (e) Organizational goals and values, and (f) the history of their specific organizational units as well as general organizational history. Learning in these six content areas was related to socialization outcomes such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and career development
Proximal and distal outcomes
Each organizational socialization tactics play role on in result in specific proximal or distal outcome.
Saks et al. (2007) showed that organizational socialization tactics are the strongest predictor for both proximal (role conflict, role ambiguity, and perceived fit) and distal outcomes (organizational commitment, job satisfaction, job performance, intentions to quit, and role orientation).
A study done by Bauer, Morrison and Callister, 1998, it presented that socialization practices such as training programs, orientation programs, and mentoring allow newcomers to have role clarity by acquire vital information about their tasks and roles in their new organization (Bauer, Morrison and Callister, 1998)
Training programs help employees are able to achieve personal development by acquiring new knowledge and skills. Training can also play a major role in reducing stress through making one aware of the signs of stress, helping one to analyze the situation and develop an active plan to minimize stressors, and through learning skills of active coping and relaxation (Saks & Ashford, 1997). Additionally, training ensures that employees develop the appropriate knowledge and abilities to engage effectively hence organizational commitment (Wanberg, 2012).
Job satisfaction is also one of the distal outcomes since newcomers are able to perform tasks and duties because they understand all requirements of their roles and tasks, leading to the achievement of personal and organizational goals (Bauer, Morrison and Callister, 1998).
Role innovation learning is another socialization proximal outcome, where newcomers in an organization learn on how to engage in their roles using innovation (Saks & Ashforth, 1997).
Moreover , Social cohesion bridges the individual through to organizational levels, and is focused on having shared pivotal attitudes, values, norms, and behaviors that support collegial relations and promote a common understanding of organizational goals (Louis, 1980; Wanous, 1992). Social cohesion includes Saks and Ashforth’s (1997) distal outcomes of group cohesion and subculture, as well as organizational culture (Louis, 1980), and social integration (Morrison, 1993). It also includes person-organization fit (Chatman, 1991; Cooper-Thomas et al., 2004) and, more broadly, acknowledges the social learning effects of achieving similar attitudes to coworkers.
Another Socialization studies show that newcomers who engage in proactive socialization tactics are more likely to show higher social integration, role clarity, job satisfaction, and learning (Ashford & Black, 1996). Although most attention has been paid to newcomer proactive behaviors, some researchers have explored effects of individual differences in newcomer socialization. For instance, Wanberg and Kammeyer-Mueller (2000) showed that newcomers who report being highly extraverted are more likely to seek feedback and build relationships. Those who are highly open to experience also tend to seek more feedback and show positive framing behaviors.
There is seminal work done by Ashford and Black (1996) suggested that newcomers engage in seven major types of proactive socialization tactics: information-seeking, feedback seeking, negotiation of job changes, positive framing, general socializing, building a relationship with one’s boss, and networking.
Insider: Opening sentence
Also we can’t Ignorant the important of experienced members ,peers and supervisors on newcomer adjustment
Many empirical research has also highlighted the importance of insiders, especially peers and supervisors, for helping newcomers adjustment (acquire information) and “learn the ropes” (Louis, Posner, & Powell, 1983; Morrison, 1993; Ostroff & Kozlow- ski, 1992). Peers seem to serve as especially important socialization agents.
Louis, Posner, and Powell (1983) explained that among various newcomer socialization practices (e.g., orientation, training, or mentoring), newcomers perceive their daily interaction with peers as most helpful for their successful socialization.
Peers also provide social support (Allen et al., 1999; Nelson & Quick, 1991) and are important sources of normative and social information (Morrison, 1993b; Ostroff & Kozlowski, 1992). Regarding technical and job-related information (e.g., role demands, performance feedback), however, newcomers are likely to rely on their supervisors (Morrison, 1993b). Insiders as a group also affect the newcomer socialization process.
According to Lee, Y. T., Reiche, B. S., & Song, D. (2010), Personal trust of newcomer to the organization insider can facilitate psychological functions of supervisors/ mentors and peers in providing acceptance and confirmation, emotional support and friendship. Such functions may help to create stronger affective bonds with the result that organizational newcomers become more willing to ‘buy in’ the values of the organization to which they belong, which result in social integration and strong cohesion outcome.
In summary, proactive newcomers, supportive organizations, and insiders are all main socialization agents for successful newcomer socialization. The socialization literature, however, has given little attention to insider roles despite their importance in newcomer socialization.
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