Week 2 – Data Gathering Instruments
As you consider the construction of your data gathering instruments, use the following questions and explanations by Sagor (2005) to guide you. (Hint: if you are going to conduct a survey, you need to create the survey form. If you are going to use an interview process, you need to create the interview questions.)
What are the three data sources?
Do I need a matrix for data triangulation?
Is the process clear enough that my students (clients) can understand it?
When collecting and analyzing data, action researchers can do a great deal to ensure the validity and reliability of their findings by using a process called triangulation. The term triangulation refers to the use of multiple independent data sources to corroborate findings. The purpose and necessity of corroboration is the same for the action researcher as it is for the trial lawyer. A trial lawyer knows that to convince a jury of the accuracy of a legal theory, it helps to have more than one witness; the more individual witnesses whose testimony supports the theory, the more credible the theory becomes. (Sagor, 2002, p. 16-18)
Educational action researchers usually have a wide variety of data sources available to them. Some of the most common sources are the following:
Referrals to the principal
Classroom behaviors (talk outs/negative behaviors)
Number of detentions (per student)
Number of suspensions (per student)
Diaries, logs, journals
Data obtained by shadowing students through the school day
The researcher will describe the instruments and data gathering techniques used. The author must establish criteria for selecting the data as they relate to the scope of the problem, and the breadth and depth of the study should fit into the 1 to 2 week time frame of the project.
A helpful tool for planning data collection and triangulation is a triangulation matrix—a simple grid that shows the various data sources that will be used to answer each research question. The matrix provides the action researcher with some assurance that the potential for bias (which is always present whenever a single source of data is used) won’t take on undue significance. Figure 2.3 illustrates how a completed triangulation matrix for my study on student editing might look.
Figure 2.3. Triangulation Matrix—Study on Student Editing
Data Source #1
Data Source #2
Data Source #3
What is the relationship between student enjoyment of writing and the quality of their editing?
Analysis of first, second, and final drafts
Comparison with work on previous assignments
In what ways will providing students with a copy of a scoring rubric impact the quality of their finished papers?
Contrast between revisions made in assignments without rubrics and ones with rubrics
Third-party assessments of finished products
To what extent are the finished papers different when students use peer editors?
Contrast between revisions made in assignments without peer editing and ones completed with peer editing
Third-party assessments of finished products
From: Sagor, R. (2002). Guiding school improvement through action research. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. p. 8-16
During data analysis, the teacher researcher engages in a systematic effort to search for patterns or trends in the data. There are many ways to accomplish this. Regardless of the particular technique employed, during the analysis phase the researcher tries to systematically cut, sift, and sort the data into piles of like or similar objects. The key purpose of this systematic sorting and categorizing is to assist in answering the following two questions:
What is the story told by my data?
What might explain this story?
Once the researcher believes the process has resulted in adequate answers to those two questions, it is time for one final return to the graphic reconstruction. This time the researcher takes a critical look at the initial Action Research goal and asks how it may need to be revised based upon the analysis of the data (Sagor, 2002, p. 8-16).
What data gathering have you selected and what instruments have you constructed? Post data gathering selections and instruments you have created.
Our Service Charter
Excellent Quality / 100% Plagiarism-FreeWe employ a number of measures to ensure top quality essays. The papers go through a system of quality control prior to delivery. We run plagiarism checks on each paper to ensure that they will be 100% plagiarism-free. So, only clean copies hit customers’ emails. We also never resell the papers completed by our writers. So, once it is checked using a plagiarism checker, the paper will be unique. Speaking of the academic writing standards, we will stick to the assignment brief given by the customer and assign the perfect writer. By saying “the perfect writer” we mean the one having an academic degree in the customer’s study field and positive feedback from other customers.
Free RevisionsWe keep the quality bar of all papers high. But in case you need some extra brilliance to the paper, here’s what to do. First of all, you can choose a top writer. It means that we will assign an expert with a degree in your subject. And secondly, you can rely on our editing services. Our editors will revise your papers, checking whether or not they comply with high standards of academic writing. In addition, editing entails adjusting content if it’s off the topic, adding more sources, refining the language style, and making sure the referencing style is followed.
Confidentiality / 100% No DisclosureWe make sure that clients’ personal data remains confidential and is not exploited for any purposes beyond those related to our services. We only ask you to provide us with the information that is required to produce the paper according to your writing needs. Please note that the payment info is protected as well. Feel free to refer to the support team for more information about our payment methods. The fact that you used our service is kept secret due to the advanced security standards. So, you can be sure that no one will find out that you got a paper from our writing service.
Money Back GuaranteeIf the writer doesn’t address all the questions on your assignment brief or the delivered paper appears to be off the topic, you can ask for a refund. Or, if it is applicable, you can opt in for free revision within 14-30 days, depending on your paper’s length. The revision or refund request should be sent within 14 days after delivery. The customer gets 100% money-back in case they haven't downloaded the paper. All approved refunds will be returned to the customer’s credit card or Bonus Balance in a form of store credit. Take a note that we will send an extra compensation if the customers goes with a store credit.
24/7 Customer SupportWe have a support team working 24/7 ready to give your issue concerning the order their immediate attention. If you have any questions about the ordering process, communication with the writer, payment options, feel free to join live chat. Be sure to get a fast response. They can also give you the exact price quote, taking into account the timing, desired academic level of the paper, and the number of pages.