Arsenic exposure from drinking water,
comprise a series of epidemiological calculations and short answer questions in addition to questions related to an epidemiological article.
The questions in Section 1 relate to the article:
Argos M et al. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, and all-cause and chronic-disease mortalities in Bangladesh (HEALS): a prospective cohort study. The Lancet 2010; 376:252- 258.
Q1. What was the aim of this study? (1 mark)
Q2. Identify the criteria for selection into the study and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these criteria. (5 marks)
Q3. a) Were the authors successful at minimising loss-to-follow-up? Provide data to support your answer. (3 marks)
b) Who (which groups) would be most likely to drop out? (2 marks)
Q4. What was the primary outcome of the study and how was it ascertained? (2 marks)
Q5. Comment on the advantages and disadvantages of the method of ascertainment of the outcome? (4 marks)
Q6. a) What were the exposure variables and how were they defined? (3 marks)
b) Comment on the strengths and weaknesses of the exposure variables. (5 marks)
Q7. Is there evidence that BMI is a confounder of the relationship between arsenic exposure and mortality? (2 marks)
Q8. On page 255, 3rd paragraph, the authors report the finding that “a one-quartile increase in arsenic concentration in well water was associated with a 15% increase in all-cause mortality (95% CI 1.05-1.26)”. Explain in your own words the interpretation of this 95% CI. (2 marks)
Q9. On page 255, 5th paragraph, the authors report the finding that “multivariate-adjusted Hazard Ratio (HR) for comparison of high baseline exposure to low baseline exposure was 1.46 (95% CI 1.14-1.86) for deaths occurring after follow up 1”. Explain in your own words the interpretation of the HR. (3 marks)
Q10. Did the authors observe a change in risk of death associated with changes in arsenic concentration in urine over time? Refer to or provide data to support your answer.
Q11. What is the interpretation of the attributable proportion based upon well water for chronic-disease mortality of 24%? (2 marks)
Q12. Imagine you are designing a RCT to evaluate the impact on urine arsenic of an intervention to reduce arsenic exposure in well water. The intervention is the one–off addition of a chemical to remove arsenic in the water. The follow up will be 6 months.
a) Who would be your study population? (2 marks)
b) Draw a diagram to illustrate the study design. (3 marks)
c) Identify and explain one ethical issue of this study. (3 marks)
Q13. An outbreak of gastroenteritis that appears to be related to the consumption of fast food has recently occurred in Mandurah. A case-control study was undertaken and the following results found.
Food item Cases (n= 19) Controls (n=17)
Crumbed chicken 14 11
Any chicken 16 16
Egg rolls 14 3
Fried rice 14 9
a) Which food(s) do you suspect to be the cause of this outbreak? Give reasons for your answer. (5 marks)
b) Was a case-control study the best study design to use here? Explain your answer.
Q14. In a matched cohort study of oral contraceptive (OC) use and breast cancer, where the exposed: non-exposed ratio was 1:1, the matched-pair findings were as follows.
No history of OC use
Breast cancer No breast cancer
Previous OC use Breast cancer 12 102
No breast cancer
a) What is the relative risk of breast cancer for those with a history of OC use? Show all working. (5 marks)
b) The 95% confidence interval for the RR is 1.1- 26.5. What does this mean in terms of possible random error in the study? (2 marks)
Q15. A new screening test for HIV in blood products was administered to 700 people with clinically proven HIV and to 900 people without HIV. The screening test was positive for 670 of the proven HIV cases and 150 of the people without HIV.
a) Calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the test. (2 marks)
b) The old screening test for HIV has a sensitivity of 80% and its specificity is 97%. Discuss if you would recommend the old or the new screening test for community based screening of blood donations? (3 marks)
Q16. A number of employees at a factory in WA have recently been diagnosed with cancer and the union has demanded an investigation into whether exposure to the factory working environment is placing their members at increased risk of cancer. You are asked to determine whether an increased risk exists and if so provide an estimate of the degree that factory workers are at risk compared with the community.
A total of 16 cases of the cancer have been diagnosed in factory workers over the last 10 years. You collect the following data from those who have had a cancer diagnosis while working at the factory over this time frame.
AGE GROUP in years PERSON YEARS AT RISK Cases
15-19 22.2 0
20-24 325.8 0
25-29 440.1 1
30-34 505.7 2
35-39 425.1 3
40-44 322.8 4
45-49 243.8 3
50-54 211.7 2
55-59 129.6 0
60-64 79.8 1
65-69 5.0 0
70-74 3.0 0
TOTAL 2714.4 16
Recent research has reported that the incident rate of the cancer in the WA population is 3330 per 100,000 person-years, with an age distribution in the community as follows:
AGE GROUP in years Age-specific IR in Western Australia (per 100,000PY)
Using the above information above, determine the age-standardised rate ratio (show all working) for cancer in the factory workers compared with the community and describe (in lay terms) what this result means. (5 marks)
Our Service Charter
Excellent Quality / 100% Plagiarism-FreeWe employ a number of measures to ensure top quality essays. The papers go through a system of quality control prior to delivery. We run plagiarism checks on each paper to ensure that they will be 100% plagiarism-free. So, only clean copies hit customers’ emails. We also never resell the papers completed by our writers. So, once it is checked using a plagiarism checker, the paper will be unique. Speaking of the academic writing standards, we will stick to the assignment brief given by the customer and assign the perfect writer. By saying “the perfect writer” we mean the one having an academic degree in the customer’s study field and positive feedback from other customers.
Free RevisionsWe keep the quality bar of all papers high. But in case you need some extra brilliance to the paper, here’s what to do. First of all, you can choose a top writer. It means that we will assign an expert with a degree in your subject. And secondly, you can rely on our editing services. Our editors will revise your papers, checking whether or not they comply with high standards of academic writing. In addition, editing entails adjusting content if it’s off the topic, adding more sources, refining the language style, and making sure the referencing style is followed.
Confidentiality / 100% No DisclosureWe make sure that clients’ personal data remains confidential and is not exploited for any purposes beyond those related to our services. We only ask you to provide us with the information that is required to produce the paper according to your writing needs. Please note that the payment info is protected as well. Feel free to refer to the support team for more information about our payment methods. The fact that you used our service is kept secret due to the advanced security standards. So, you can be sure that no one will find out that you got a paper from our writing service.
Money Back GuaranteeIf the writer doesn’t address all the questions on your assignment brief or the delivered paper appears to be off the topic, you can ask for a refund. Or, if it is applicable, you can opt in for free revision within 14-30 days, depending on your paper’s length. The revision or refund request should be sent within 14 days after delivery. The customer gets 100% money-back in case they haven't downloaded the paper. All approved refunds will be returned to the customer’s credit card or Bonus Balance in a form of store credit. Take a note that we will send an extra compensation if the customers goes with a store credit.
24/7 Customer SupportWe have a support team working 24/7 ready to give your issue concerning the order their immediate attention. If you have any questions about the ordering process, communication with the writer, payment options, feel free to join live chat. Be sure to get a fast response. They can also give you the exact price quote, taking into account the timing, desired academic level of the paper, and the number of pages.