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Analysis of Turkish phonetics (values 3,6,12,15,16,17) through wals info

Analysis of Turkish phonetics (values 3,6,12,15,16,17) through wals info
Project description
Analysis of Turkish phonetics (values 3,6,12,15,16,17) through wals info
Value 3 consonant-vowel ratio
Value 6 uvular consonants
Value 12 syllable structure
Value 15 weight-sensitive stress
Value 16 weight factors in weight-sensitive stress systems
Value 17 rhythm types
Go value by value do not skip or combine values
Explain the value and give an example in Turkish
0    FEATURES    C    Turkish
1    Consonant Inventories    P    Average
2    Vowel Quality Inventories    P    Large (7-14)
3    Consonant-Vowel Ratio    P    Average
4    Voicing in Plosives and Fricatives    P    In both plosives and fricatives
5    Voicing and Gaps in Plosive Systems    P    None missing in /p t k b d g/
6    Uvular Consonants    P    None
7    Glottalized Consonants    P    No glottalized consonants
8    Lateral Consonants    P    /l/, no obstruent laterals
9    The Velar Nasal    P    No velar nasal
10    Vowel Nasalization    P    Contrast absent
11    Front Rounded Vowels    P    High and mid
12    Syllable Structure    P    Moderately complex
13    Tone    P    No tones
14    Fixed Stress Locations    P    No fixed stress
15    Weight-Sensitive Stress    P    Unbounded: Stress can be anywhere
16    Weight Factors in Weight-Sensitive Stress Systems    P    Lexical stress
17    Rhythm Types    P    No rhythmic stress
18    Absence of Common Consonants    P    All present
19    Presence of Uncommon Consonants    P    None
20    Fusion of Selected Inflectional Formatives    M    Exclusively concatenative
21    Exponence of Selected Inflectional Formatives    M    Monoexponential case
22    Inflectional Synthesis of the Verb    M    6-7 categories per word
23    Locus of Marking in the Clause    M    Dependent marking
24    Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases    M    Double marking
25    Locus of Marking: Whole-language Typology    M    Inconsistent or other
26    Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology    M    Strongly suffixing
27    Reduplication    M    Productive full and partial reduplication
28    Case Syncretism    M    No syncretism
29    Syncretism in Verbal Person/Number Marking    M    Not syncretic
30    Number of Genders    NC    None
31    Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender Systems    NC    No gender
32    Systems of Gender Assignment    NC    No gender
33    Coding of Nominal Plurality    NC    Plural suffix
34    Occurrence of Nominal Plurality    NC    All nouns, always obligatory
35    Plurality in Independent Personal Pronouns    NC    Person stem + nominal plural affix
36    The Associative Plural    NC    Associative same as additive plural
37    Definite Articles    NC    No definite, but indefinite article
38    Indefinite Articles    NC    Indefinite word same as ‘one’
39    Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent Pronouns    NC    No inclusive/exclusive
40    Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Verbal Inflection    NC    No inclusive/exclusive
41    Distance Contrasts in Demonstratives    NC    Two-way contrast
42    Pronominal and Adnominal Demonstratives    NC    Different inflection
43    Third Person Pronouns and Demonstratives    NC    Related to remote demonstratives
44    Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns    NC    No gender distinctions
45    Politeness Distinctions in Pronouns    NC    Binary politeness distinction
46    Indefinite Pronouns    NC    Generic-noun-based
47    Intensifiers and Reflexive Pronouns    NC    Identical
48    Person Marking on Adpositions    NC    No person marking
49    Number of Cases    NC    6-7 cases
50    Asymmetrical Case-Marking    NC    Symmetrical
51    Position of Case Affixes    NC    Case suffixes
52    Comitatives and Instrumentals    NC    Identity
53    Ordinal Numerals    NC    First/one-th, two-th, three-th
54    Distributive Numerals    NC    Marked by suffix
55    Numeral Classifiers    NC    Optional
56    Conjunctions and Universal Quantifiers    NC    Formally different
57    Position of Pronominal Possessive Affixes    NC    Possessive suffixes
58    Obligatory Possessive Inflection    NS    Absent
59    Possessive Classification    NS    No possessive classification
60    Genitives, Adjectives and Relative Clauses    NS    Highly differentiated
61    Adjectives without Nouns    NS    Without marking
62    Action Nominal Constructions    NS    Possessive-Accusative
63    Noun Phrase Conjunction    NS    ‘And’ different from ‘with’
64    Nominal and Verbal Conjunction    NS    Identity
65    Perfective/Imperfective Aspect    VC    Grammatical marking
66    The Past Tense    VC    Present, no remoteness distinctions
67    The Future Tense    VC    Inflectional future exists
68    The Perfect    VC    No perfect
69    Position of Tense-Aspect Affixes    VC    Tense-aspect suffixes
70    The Morphological Imperative    VC    Second singular and second plural
71    The Prohibitive    VC    Normal imperative + normal negative
72    Imperative-Hortative Systems    VC    Maximal system
73    The Optative    VC    Inflectional optative absent
74    Situational Possibility    VC    Affixes on verbs
75    Epistemic Possibility    VC    Affixes on verbs
76    Overlap between Situational and Epistemic Modal Marking    VC    Overlap for both possibility and necessity
77    Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality    VC    Direct and indirect
78    Coding of Evidentiality    VC    Part of the tense system
79    Suppletion According to Tense and Aspect    VC    Tense
80    Verbal Number and Suppletion    VC    None
81    Order of Subject, Object and Verb    WO    SOV
82    Order of Subject and Verb    WO    SV
83    Order of Object and Verb    WO    OV
84    Order of Object, Oblique, and Verb    WO    XOV
85    Order of Adposition and Noun Phrase    WO    Postpositions
86    Order of Genitive and Noun    WO    Genitive-Noun
87    Order of Adjective and Noun    WO    Adjective-Noun
88    Order of Demonstrative and Noun    WO    Demonstrative-Noun
89    Order of Numeral and Noun    WO    Numeral-Noun
90    Order of Relative Clause and Noun    WO    Relative clause-Noun
91    Order of Degree Word and Adjective    WO    Degree word-Adjective
92    Position of Polar Question Particles    WO    Final
93    Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content Questions    WO    Not initial interrogative phrase
94    Order of Adverbial Subordinator and Clause    WO    Mixed
95    Relationship between the Order of O and V and the Order of Adposition and NP    WO    OV and Postpositions
96    Relationship between the Order of O and V and the Order of RC and N    WO    OV and RelN
97    Relationship between the Order of O and V and the Order of Adj and N    WO    OV and AdjN
98    Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrases    SC    Nominative – accusative (standard)
99    Alignment of Case Marking of Pronouns    SC    Nominative – accusative (standard)
100    Alignment of Verbal Person Marking    SC    Accusative
101    Expression of Pronominal Subjects    SC    Subject affixes on verb
102    Verbal Person Marking    SC    Only the A argument
103    Third Person Zero of Verbal Person Marking    SC    Zero in all 3sg forms
104    Order of Person Markers on the Verb    SC    A and P do not or do not both occur on the verb
105    Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb ‘Give’    SC    Indirect-object construction
106    Reciprocal Constructions    SC    Distinct from reflexive
107    Passive Constructions    SC    Present
108    Antipassive Constructions    SC    No antipassive
109    Applicative Constructions    SC    No applicative construction
110    Periphrastic Causative Constructions    SC    Purposive but no sequential
111    Nonperiphrastic Causative Constructions    SC    Morphological but no compound
112    Negative Morphemes    SC    Negative affix
113    Symmetric and Asymmetric Standard Negation    SC    Both
114    Subtypes of Asymmetric Standard Negation    SC    A/Cat
115    Negative Indefinite Pronouns and Predicate Negation    SC    Predicate negation also present
116    Polar Questions    SC    Question particle
117    Predicative Possession    SC    Genitive
118    Predicative Adjectives    SC    Nonverbal encoding
119    Nominal and Locational Predication    SC    Identical
120    Zero Copula for Predicate Nominals    SC    Impossible
121    Comparative Constructions    SC    Locational
122    Relativization on Subjects    CS    Gap
123    Relativization on Obliques    CS    Gap
124    ‘Want’ Complement Subjects    CS    Subject is left implicit
125    Purpose Clauses    CS    Deranked
126    ‘When’ Clauses    CS    Deranked
127    Reason Clauses    CS    Balanced/deranked
128    Utterance Complement Clauses    CS    Balanced/deranked
129    Hand and Arm    L    Different
130    Finger and Hand    L    Different
131    Numeral Bases    L    Decimal
132    Number of Non-Derived Basic Colour Categories    L    6
133    Number of Basic Colour Categories    L    11
134    Green and Blue    L    Green vs. blue
135    Red and Yellow    L    Red vs. yellow
136    M-T Pronouns    L    M-T pronouns, paradigmatic
137    N-M Pronouns    L    No N-M pronouns
138    Tea    L    Words derived from Sinitic cha
139    Writing Systems    O    *
140    Para-Linguistic Usages of Clicks    O    Logical meanings
141    Order of Negative Morpheme and Verb    WO    [V-Neg]
142    Position of Negative Word With Respect to S, O and V    WO    MorphNeg

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