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Christian monasticism involves a structured and ascetic search for Christ. It involves devoting one’s entire life to follow God by focusing devotion to the common religious disciplines of chastity, confession, prayer, silence, fasting, vigils, obedience and good works. In this regard, having a monastic experience encompasses a solitary and inward experience but it can also be exercised in a community setting. Monasticism involves hard work and prayer, as well as submitting every aspect of a person’s life to engage in a trained awareness of the presence of God (Al-Antoni, 2012). The primary friars did relatively little in the method for outside work. Under St. Pachomius physical work was composed as a fundamental piece of the ascetic life; and since it is a standard of the ministers as recognized from the panhandlers, that the body might act naturally supporting, outside work of some sort has been an inescapable piece of the life from that point onward. Monasticism was mainly focused on the person’s search for a religious lifestyle. However, monasticism was also responsible for several other aspects. It ensured the survival of culture and education, the continuance of early and important manuscripts, developing pivotal early medicines, the beginning of capitalism, art, social stability, and for the vital reform movement in Christendom. Over time, monasticism developed orders and laws that ensured that the followers complied with the differing forms for a spiritual living (Dunn, 2007). This paper will examine the legal system of Christian monastic orders.
Monasticism in Christianity, which gives the reasons for the words “monk” and “house,” incorporates a couple varying sorts of religious living. It began to develop ideal on time ever, yet is not said in the sacred works. It has come to be overseen by moral standards (e.g. the Rule of St Basil, the Rule of St Benedict) and, in present day times, the Church law of the different scriptural Christian places of love that have sorts of open living. The Christian monk clutches the religious life as a work for God. He will presumably fulfill everlasting life in his proximity. The guidelines of faithful life are orchestrated in the “direction of perfection.” (Al-Antoni, 2012)
Devout requests are social occasions of men or women who submit themselves to God and live in a disengaged gathering or alone. Ordinarily, serves and detached nuns practice a somber lifestyle, wearing plain dress or robes, eating direct sustenance, asking and ruminating a couple times every day, and taking promises of purity, desperation, and obedience. Ministers are detached into two sorts, eremitic, who are single recluses, and cenobitic, who live separately in gathering. In third and fourth century Egypt, antisocial people were of two sorts: anchorites, who went into the leave and stayed in one place, and loners who remained single however wound about (Al-Antoni, 2012).
Monasticism and Law
The legal system of Christian monastic orders relied on Buddha’s life and teachings. The legal system was founded on the conviction and the attainability and existence of supreme reality. The law was exercised based on ethical conduct, learning, meditation and progress on the pathway to liberation. The legal system ensures that the followers followed the way to enlightenment by living a disciplined life and that was conducive to creating awareness of a person’s mental states. A portion of the principles of the legal framework considered marriage, sexual relations, family life, reproduction, individual concerns and vocation a diversion from otherworldly concerns. As a result, this was considered a prerequisite for joining monasticism (Al-Antoni, 2012). A key aspect in the success of the monastic legal system was its capability to function alongside other political authorities (Johnston, 2000).
Meanwhile, the Christian monastic legal system functioned outside of the historical society and failed to acknowledge conventional political and social authority structures; the relationships between the government and the monastic legal system were symbiotic. The monastic legal system enjoyed the inclusive support, as well as protection of government authorities. In return, the monasteries offered public legitimization, education, and religious services. Then again, since religious communities regularly filled in as local foundations, the ascetic lawful framework served the nearby groups’ needs; hence, producing critical political impact. Other than the religious ability and specialist, riches and political impact, the ascetic lawful framework served the lay and devout groups’ legitimate needs (Dunn, 2007).
Judicial and criminal system
The monastic order had a completely settled inner lawful and legal framework. The framework separated the wrongdoings as indicated by the level of seriousness. It included nitty gritty case cases, and also definitions for the components that constituted each type of transgression. Other than the inner law codes, the devout authoritative laws were frequently connected as an approving instrument for the lay law. For instance, monastic leaders created, executed and sustained a fully established lay legal system founded on Buddhist law. On the other hand, monastic judicial and criminal law codes served as a source of legal authority and law in the communities. Often, uniting lay and religious authority offered monastic leaders legal and political authority. These leaders adjudicated lay disputes over the criminal and civil law, as well as monastic behavior laws (Kruger & Bednorz, 2008).
Women and marriage
The involvement of women in monasticism was varied. Unlike mainstream doctrine where women could be enlightened, women in monasticism were given unflattering responsibilities. Nuns took more vows than men did and specific rules were set to determine the nuns’ subordinate status. Women were not allowed to learn monastic education and in some places, their ordination lineages failed to survive. Regardless, women played important and extensive roles within the society setting besides acting as historical, divine and positive role models. Although they lacked education opportunities as men, women were allowed to participate in rituals and meditations. As a result, they developed and sustained stable traditions of community solidarity, ritual, and meditation (Johnston, 2000).
Women in monasticism were grouped into various categories including nuns, hermitesses, beguines, tertiaries and anchoresses. The majority of women during the medieval era were married to men whom their family selected. These marriages were reasonably successful. However, if women decided not to marry and become nuns, they took monastic vows of obedience, poverty, and chastity and lived in convents. Nuns were often regulars. Some of the women decided to become hermitesses. These women rejected the regulated and communal convent life for the difficulty and desolation of a lonely wilderness life. Beguines were merely religious women who took temporary monastic vows of simplicity of life and chastity. They dedicated their lives to good works. Beguines were not bound to any order and could renounce their vows and get married. Anchoresses were solitary and took vows to spend their entire lifetime bound to cells (Al-Antoni, 2012).
Monastic orders
Monastic orders comprise of gatherings of women and men who have committed their lives to God and live in solitary or in groups. Usually, monastic orders comprise of secluded nuns and ministers who exercise a strict lifestyle. They wear plain robes or dress, eat simple meals, ask and reflect with moderation, as well as take pledges of dutifulness, destitution, and chastity. In monasticism, friars are categorized into two groups (Dunn, 2007). It was necessary for a religion community to have an abbot who was also considered the father. The abbot was the worldly guide of the followers. The earlier was second in command while the senior members oversaw ten friars each.  The major monastic orders are discussed below. Each monastic order has a several sub-orders (Johnston, 2000).
Augustinian
The Augustinian order was founded in 1244. This order takes after Augustine’s administration. Martin Luther was both a minister and an Augustinian. However, he was not a friar. Unlike friars, ministers oversee peaceful responsibilities within the outside world. Friars live in a monastery. Augustinians wear specific clothes, particularly dark robes. These robes symbolize the passing of the Augustinians to the world while incorporating nuns and men (Kruger & Bednorz, 2008).
Basilian
The Basilian order was founded in 356. This order comprises of nuns and ministers who oversee the Control of Basic the Incomparable. The Basilian order is mainly an Eastern Customary. Unlike ministers, nuns operate in doctor’s facilities, learning institutions, as well as altruistic associations (Kruger & Bednorz, 2008).
Benedictine
Benedict, while in the Monte Cassino nunnery, instituted the Benedictine order in 540. However, Benedict did not start a different order. Religious communities that take after the Benedictine Run spread as far as Britain, most of Europe, and then to South and North America. Besides, Benedictines also integrate nuns. This order is incorporated in preacher work and instruction. The model developed by St. Benedict for monastic lifestyle promoted the community as a family symbol (Johnston, 2000). The father was the abbot and the monks were all brothers. Every day involved communal and private prayer, religious study and reading, and manual work. Day to day life was mainly focused on a mandatory schedule of reflection and prayer. Monks were required to assemble eight times every day to participate in prayer. The abbot had full authority and sovereignty within the assigned monastic community. The abbot was selected to the position and served until death since the position could not be replaced. The rules prohibited the monks from exiting the monastic community. They were expected to practice complete, as well as strict obedience to authority concerning every lawful issue. On the other hand, monks were required to use moderate speech although silence was not mandatory (Kruger & Bednorz, 2008).
Carmelite
The Carmelite order was founded in 1247. This order integrates nuns, laypeople, and monks. The Carmelites take after the Albert Avogadro’s administration that integrates virtue, compliance, destitution, hard work and stillness for an extended time of the day. On the other hand, Carmelites perfect contemplation and consideration. Celebrated Carmelites integrate the spiritualists such as Therese of Lisieux, Teresa of Avila and John of the Cross (Al-Antoni, 2012).
Carthusian
The Carthusian order was formed in 1084. This order consisted of 24 houses located on three mainlands and committed to philosophy. Besides a Sunday feast and day-to-day mass, the Carthusians spend a portion of the time being quiet in their cell or room. Visiting Carthusians is limited to relatives and families at least once a year. Every house, though considered self-supporting, provided a herb-based alcohol known as Chartreuse, which is manufactured in France (Dunn, 2007).
Cistercian
Bernard of Clairvaux established the Cistercian order. The order comprises of two divisions: Cistercians of the Strict Recognition (Trappist) and Cistercians of the Basic Recognition. The house of Strict Recognition adopted Benedict’s standards, took an oath not to consume meat and observed silence. During the 20th century, Trappist ministers including Thomas Keating and Thomas Merton managed the resurrection of meditative supplication among the Catholics (Johnston, 2000).
Dominican
Dominic created the Dominican order, also revered as the Catholic Request of Ministers in 1206. This order adopts the administration of Augustine. Dominicans comprise of sanctified people who live in a group and make pledges of submission, celibacy, and destitution. Women can also live isolated in a convent as nuns or can serve as mission sisters working in social settings, learning, and healthcare establishments. This order also comprises of lay people (Johnston, 2000).
Franciscan
Francis of Assisi created the Franciscan order in 1209. Franciscans integrate three requests: nuns or Poor Clares, laypeople request and Ministers Minor. This order further isolated Monks into Ministers Minor Capuchin and Ministers Minor Conventual. The Ministers Minor Conventual claims some property including learning institutions, places of worship, and religious communities.  However, the Capuchins branch adopts Francis’ administration. The Franciscan order integrates nuns, ministers, as well as nuns who dress in chestnut robes (Kruger & Bednorz, 2008).
Norbertine
The Norbertine order is also known as the Premonstratensian order. Norbert founded this order during the mid-12th century in Western Europe. The order integrates siblings, sisters, and Catholic clerics. The Norbertines proclaim chastity, submission, and destitution and divide their time to consist of working in the outside world, as well as having deliberations within their groups (Johnston, 2000).
In traditional Catholic social orders, monastic groups frequently assumed the responsibility of social administrations, for example, training and human services; to the last, they were so firmly connected that attendants are regularly called “sisters.” In the Middle Ages, religious communities preserved and replicated old original copies in their scriptoria, their drug stores put away and examined medicaments, and they helped the advancement of horticultural systems. The necessity of wine for the Mass prompted the promotion of wine culture, as appeared in the revelation of the méthode champenoise by Dom Perignon. A few alcohols like Bénédictine and the Trappist lagers were additionally created in religious communities. Indeed, even today diverse faith communities and cloisters are locally famous for their cooking claims to fame. Christian monks developed expressions of the human experience as a method for commending God. Gregorian serenade and miniatures are illustrations (Kruger & Bednorz, 2008).
The status of monks as separated from ordinary life (in any event hypothetically) served a social capacity. Deposed Visigothic lords were tonsured and sent to a cloister with the goal that they couldn’t assert the crown back. Religious communities turned into a place for second children to live in abstinence so that the family legacy went to the first child; in return the families given to the cloisters. A few requests were supported by rulers and wealthy families to keep and instruct their lady girls before masterminded marriage. This, however, did not bar tempters like the anecdotal Don Juan and the good Giacomo Casanova from striking communities and learners. The cloisters additionally gave shelter to those tired of natural life like Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor who resigned to Yuste in his late years (Kruger & Bednorz, 2008).
Monks and nuns performed various reasonable administrations in the Middle Ages, for they housed explorers, breastfed the wiped out, and helped poor people; abbots and abbesses apportioned counsel to mainstream rulers. Be that as it may, monasticism additionally offered society a profound outlet and perfect with important outcomes for medieval culture all in all. Religious communities energized education, advanced learning, and protected the works of art of old writing, including the works of Cicero, Virgil, Ovid, and Aristotle. To embellish the festival of the sacrament, religious writers advanced the degree and modernity of choral music, and to make the best condition for dedication, monasticism built up a nearby and productive organization with the visual expressions. The requirement for books and buildings made religious houses dynamic benefactors of manifestations of the human experience, and the monastic commitment to perform manual work enabled many monks and nuns to serve God as inventive specialists. Incredibly, some of them marked their works in words that appear to be planned to name the creator as well as to recognize the protest as a devoted advertising. Each monastic group comprised of men or ladies promised to abstinence and bound by an arrangement of controls (Al-Antoni, 2012).
By 400, a few tenets were present, each of which expressed the soul and taught of religious life in an unexpected way. In time, groups watching a similar manager found a common way of life as a request. Monks and nuns in this way attempted to secure their salvation, additionally through supplication to look for the salvation of others. Religious life spoke to numerous in the Middle Ages, and as the number and abundance of cloisters expanded, so demanded buildings, books, and reverential articles. Medieval monastic devout groups formed the advancement of expressions of the human experience by their support additionally by their imagination and innovativeness, as developments attempted in one religious community regularly spread to different houses and into more broad utilize (Al-Antoni, 2012).
Monasticism represented a standardized test for manufacturers, for there was dependably a conviction that devout life would thrive best in surroundings most helpful for it. The creators of the fifth and 6th-century rules say little in regards to the plan and mien of buildings, yet later specialists concocted cautious guidelines for the shape and course of action of monastic groups. The style and embellishment of a religious community’s buildings shifted by its particular means and its conventions. In the early twelfth century, for example, the large Benedictine monastery at Cluny developed a congregation of astounding size with forcing outside towers and elegant inside adornment; the firmly stuffed buildings that fill a fragmentary frieze recommend the wealth of the structure and the way it supplemented the impressive ceremony celebrated there. Somewhere else, religious buildings were embellished with a vivacious blend of topics running from holy subjects to portrayals of rulers and givers, interesting creatures, and naturally comical or even salacious figures (Kruger & Bednorz, 2008).
Religious needs and tastes demonstrated as transformative for expressions of the human experience of the book concerning design in the Middle Ages, for cloisters required books for regular use in the ceremony, at mealtimes and gatherings, when books were perused resoundingly, and for private supplication and reflection. A variety of ritualistic writings, from the Breviary, an abstract of writings for the Divine Office, to missals, accounts, antiphonaries, and graduals for the choir, was standard in ascetic libraries, similar to the books of the Bible and religious works by Saint Augustine, Gregory the Great, and other patristic writers. Different books served the requests of particular religious requests: each Benedictine house, for example, required a duplicate of the decide that represented its reality, and the inconvenience of a standard ritual by the Dominican request impelled the making of enlightened choir books for its groups. Until the thirteenth century, medieval monks and nuns made the vast majority of these books themselves, planning material, blending inks, relentlessly replicating writings by hand, and painting perfect pictures in the time assigned to work between the ceremonial hours. A few monks made messages out of their own, similar to the Spanish minister Beatus of Liébana, whose critique on the Book of Revelation was advanced with distinctive delineations(Al-Antoni, 2012).
The discussion above has revealed the legal system of monastic orders. Since the early years of Christianity, the monastic movement developed due to the need among some people to live an isolated and austere lifestyle as a means of demonstrating their complete dedication to Christ. Eventually, communal monasticism advanced as the most famous system of early monastic lifestyle. All through Europe, religious communities not just jumped up by they likewise firmly affected mainstream and bigger groups. In a few ways, the devout conspicuousness on physical work, proficiency, virtuousness and a law based work structure brought about showing the medieval friar as the ideal model of conduct. Thusly, a few people attempted to imitate his way of life and components. In the past millennium, the legal system of monastic orders and rules has influenced the structure and course of all cloistersin Europe and across the globe. Throughout the middle Ages, other monastic orders arose as an endeavor to reform the greed and corruption, which had started to spread across Europe. Such division in the monastic communities continued to imitate the European monasteries’ structure in the subsequent centuries.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
References
Al-Antoni, F. D. (2012). Monasticism. Place of publication not identified: Nabu Press.
Dunn, M. (2007). The emergence of monasticism: from the Desert Fathers to the early Middle Ages. Malden Mass.: Blackwell.
Johnston, W. M. (2000). Encyclopedia of monasticism. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn .
Kruger, K., & Bednorz, A. (2008). Monasteries and monastic orders: 2000 years of Christian art and culture. Germany: H.F. Ullmann.

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For the last decade, various aspects in the business world have led to many an answered question. What are the public and the market interests in the commerce fraternity? The question is one of the issues that still have some serious debates and has created various presumptions among people venturing in business. According to researchers, the study of economics is not always in acquiring a ready-made answer to an economic question, but to have the exposure and learn how to avoid being cheated or deceived by economists. Market Self-interest probably means that the market can seek its personal gain without affecting its relationship with the public interest. For one to ensure the submission of the right answers to either students or entrepreneurs, there are articles on the theory of economy.
In a market economy, a market always considers its self-interest for sustainability in a competitive world. Markets tend to adopt new strategies for survival by exploring and venturing where they can gain more profit and race against competitions. According to Gregory and Smith (2013), economic activities across the globe are the result of selfish interests. Arguing with a basic example, so why to bakers in the baking industries choose to bake? Automatically the correct answer is self-absorption. The Baker is not after pleasing anyone or competing; rather he wants enough money to sustain his family. This example also implies on the marketplace, where businesses are not after anything else but to have the fair share for sustenance purposes. Gregory and Smith (2013) also argue that self-regard is the motivator of all economic activities. Cheating, dishonesty, and gouging are all led by self-interest; luckily enough, the completion aspect in the commerce field always play an influential role by holding it in check. Still giving an example with the baker, it is a basic concept that the only way a baker can earn dollars in a day is by producing high-quality products that are cheaper and more convenient than the competitors. If he decides on increasing the price too much, the customers or the consumers will likely buy the products from his competitors; Facing a risk in making losses. The argument brings to a conclusion that, if a business lacks real competitors and stands in a position of monopoly, it can easily charge high prices, sell some inferior products or treat customers poorly. In the case of the others, a self-interested person or a business might have the chance to see an opportunity in earning enough money and making profits; thus opening a competing job that can easily result and lead to the failure of the primary job. Notably, this shows how rivalry goes about as a decent keep an eye on self-interests as it controls the capacity of one business to take the full favorable position of the clients. Besides, the insertion of government policies on regulating interests either public or market plays a very influential role. It sets rules on prices and salaries that can result in the alteration of the real relationship between the square and the common public interest. By upholding a robust marketplace, there are discoveries on strategies via the entrepreneurial rivalries and good feedbacks via the income and loss system.
According to the economic theory, the public interest becomes the commercial market that is fragile and has the tendency to operate ineffectively, inefficiently, and for some individuals in the society. The public interest terminology is unsurprisingly used to justify a broad range of proposals or actions in several ways. However, it is unclear what it means; there is a suspicion that this phrase is functional as a cover-up in garnering some support. Supporting people in a market always ignores the importance of a community thus causing alteration between the good relationship between the public and the marketplace. According to prominent economists like Stigler and Pigou (2014), for a firm to direct and monitor cost-effective markets successfully, the management must keep in mind that the government interventions regulate banks and make them work in a social interest perspective. The argument is one of the influential roles that it plays in reflecting the personal benefit of any individual in society; It caters to anyone above the poverty line. If the government does not participate in such issues, inflation always finds a path in the society creating harsh relationships between business and customers due to the high prices of commodities. Public welfares are easily served by the banks when the administration set aside a certain amount of resources on banks and thus enabling the fair sharing of these recourses efficiently and in social interest. Pigou also believes that these business regulations are prepared in the common interest when they face the demand situation from the public for correcting all inefficient practices. When people follow the rules and steer clear of corruption within the system, they do not favor the individual’s running a particular business, but they prefer the entire society’s interest. According to Stigler and Pigou (2011), he argues in a different state of mind where he says that regulations are always in place when the public demands the proficient allocation of resources. He also discovered that the rules are not a hundred percent efficient and are regularly used by some private players to prohibit the entry of various opponents in the market.
When discussing the public interest theory, one should keep in mind that it is a rational decision in the introduction of legislation. Which mandates for most of the corporates to disclose the immediate impact of their activities on the community and environment, and also; disclosure of the initiatives taken by them to protect the public and the background from the adverse impact of their activities. According to the two arguments between Pigou and Stringer, one can confidently state that the public interest is served if governments and other private administrations make the legislation that mandates and controls the disclosure of the impacts of corporate activities on a business-minded society. Markedly, this not only refers to the influence of their operations but they need to disclose their initiative of enlightening the adverse impact of their actions on a Society. Nevertheless, having to discuss some ideologies in the commerce world. It is true to say that the philosophy that the Administration agencies established in countries regulate the industry in the best interest of the people. However, in real life and practice, they work for the benefit of the industry or market in which they regulate. The capture theory has a different way of viewing this situation. It states that government agencies are always formulated by previous and future industry employees, thereby, the workers of the industry work in the best interest of the industry. The argument answers the question of whether the market combine’s its self-interest with the public Interest in today’s economic life. The capture theory plays a significant role by recognizing the close relationship between the administration agencies and the market in which they function. The companies stipulated for the regulation purposes ensures that the protection of the public interest has a chance to be adhered to from industrial verdicts and activities.
To support this presumption with an example, one can consider a government agency that is established at the state level to regulate the cotton die company and protect the public from some adverse impacts. However, this only applies if the associates of the agency are the past or future workers of the enterprise. Instead of the corporation working for the public welfare, the members of the organizations away starts working with sorts of favor to business because they get attracted by high paycheck as a company employee/worker either in the past or future. If these associates of the agency work for the organization, they get well paid later in future when they join it or rejoins. The government priority and mandate as the only rule maker and these rules can be either simple, straight of very complicated depending on numerous several factors. Some of the highly-regulated companies or industries are the education, transportation, banking, insurance and the communication industries. The several regulations imposed by the administration from these industries are quality and quantity control, rate control and the minimum standard of operating activities and operatives’ protection standards. According to various research on the theory of economics, the regulatory companies or agencies need expertise and deep awareness of the business under regulations. For example; regulating an insurance company, one need the expertise of working with banking agencies so as to know the correct followed procedures. Organizations that are working for tutelage industry on the other hand need’s knowledge in how this trade works. According to the Captured theory, the controllers, companies will always maneuver the things for their profits, and these are the first individuals benefiting of any regulation. But for the disclosure parameter can be benefited to several constituents like workers, banks and the public.
According to the economic interest theory, it assumes that company groups are usually formed to serve a particular commercial interest of the team. These groups stand a place of conflicting each other and they mostly lobby governments’ in making legislations according to their interests, not the public. Unsurprisingly, economic groups do not have the public interest in their agent where they get supported by the regulators who are motivated by their berries. Regulators agenda has changed to maintaining their current positions where they are reelected with the motive to please the economic groups rather than the public interest. In the economic team interest perspective, students taking economics as a subject find that the regulation and the legislation introduced do not lead to the defined accountability of corporations concerning their societal and environmental performance. It is because legislations are put in place keeping economic individuals’ interest in care because of lobbying with the rule. The community must always be eligible for consideration in respect of any matter which is asserted to be a public interest. It enables each, and every individual is aware of the immediate situations and circumstances affecting them.
According to the question whether market reconciles Self-interest with the Public Interest, economists and students find that it is not true, due to the increased cases of corruption and dishonesty in the entrepreneurship world in the modern society. Business tries to exploit the public with the intention of self-interest leaving the public in economic challenging situations like inflations. The government coming up with some stipulated legislations to control this issue have faced criticism due to weak governing systems within it. Influential economic groups easily bribe the regulatory agencies or bodies, and they forget the welfare of the ordinary citizens putting more effort on this selfish teams. Research teams advice that the various regulatory bodies should have the adequate enterprise in the field of specialization either education field or the banking field to offer their maximum in the area. A company should always do things that are for the best of the public interest to have good a reputation now and the future. It can be said that public appreciation and support are valuable elements of the company success in general. From the question, we also find that the market should always understand the relevant public wants and should ensure that it provides goods and services that are of high quality. So that it can preserve its Self-interest from challenging competitors; the public and the market interest should be considerably equal; this ensures that companies don’t make losses and gain sufficient profits whereas, on the other hand, the public enjoys the state of buying and selling their products at a reasonably fair price.
 
 
 
 
 
References
Gregory, P. & Smith, R. (2013). Comparing economic systems in the twenty-first century. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Stigler & Pigou. (2014). Economic analysis of institutions and systems (Vol. 33). Springer Science & Business Media.

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Imagine you are cultural anthropologist searching for a hidden time capsule from both the Renaissance and the Age of Baroque. In each capsule it is rumored that there are at least two examples of each of the following items locked inside:

Art
Music
Architecture
Philosophy
Literature

Write a 550- to 700-word paper describing which examples you would expect to find and how each of your examples reflects world events and cultural patterns of the time.
 
Format your assignment according to appropriate course level APA guidelines.

No Plagerism
No Copy And Paste
Cite All Sources

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 After carefully watching his on line lecture answer two of the following three questions:

1.) What were the causes of the Civil Rights Movement?
2.)  Why might the Civil Rights Movement be considered such a successful revolution?
3.)  What were the 3 most important facts about the Civil Rights Movement that you learned from Prof. Calvin’s lecture?

Guidelines:
1 page typed and double spaced 
Feel free to quote Prof. Holder.

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THE TOPIC IS AFRICAN AMERICANS DURING THE CIVIL WAR (1861-1865)
IF YOU CANNOT DO THIS OR DO NOT KNOW ABOUT THIS SUBJECT PLEASE DO NOT RESPOND

Write a conclusion that summarizes your findings and ideas. Your conclusion must state why you think your chosen topic was repeating in early US history. You can also state why it is important in the study of history to explore this topic.
Do not use any direct quotes or lists or pictures. The entire paper is paraphrased with citations to all facts and references to all citations.
Do not list references that do not point to a citation. This is not hard.

Summary of Guidelines for Formatting

The body of the paper should be a MS Word document that is no less than five pages in length, double spaced in 12-point font.
There should be an introduction paragraph with a thesis statement.
Separate paragraphs should amplify separate, chronological events or concepts in early US history and their relation to your topic. Be sure to point out how the topic remained the same and/or changed over the time period in question.
The paper should end with a strong conclusion that ties together the information found regarding the topic and discusses why the topic is important.
References should be listed on a separate page in APA format.

Name your paper Lastname_Firstname_W5_FinalDraft.doc.

Assignment 2 Grading Criteria

Maximum Points

Topic is explored completely and major aspects of the topic are identified.

80

Paper is organized with an introduction containing a clear thesis statement, supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion that captures significance of the topic.

80

Supports ideas and demonstrates understanding with textual, visual, and/or oral references and examples. Where relevant, uses proper APA citation format and style.

20

Employs correct and standard college-level English grammar, mechanics, spelling, punctuation and sentence structure, appropriate logic and voice, and APA manuscript formatting. Direct quotes must constitute 5% or less of the total word count.

20

Total:

200

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Ashford 3: – Week 2 – Discussion 2
 
 
 
 
You are required to contribute 100 words to this forum by Day 7 (Monday).
 
 
 
 

 

Week Two Open Forum

 

Prepare: Take a few minutes to think about the material that we’ve covered in this course so far.
 

Reflect: Reflect on what you found interesting, surprising, or confusing in this past week. Did anything that you learned cause you to understand an issue and event differently? Have you discovered any habits or tips that help you to complete your course work more effectively or efficiently?
Consult The Anatomy of a Discussion Board as well as Critical Thinking: A Guide to Skillful Reasoning as you formulate your response.
 

Write: This discussion forum is an opportunity for you to explore topics that interest you, share critical insights and questions that you are working with, share your struggles and triumphs, and discuss difficulties that may have arisen this week, hopefully finding solutions. Your initial post should describe your experiences in the course this past week, prompting further discussion. You should address at least two of the following questions:
●      What struck you in particular as you explored the course materials this week?
●      What insights have you had?
●      What have you been struggling with?
●      What questions have come up for you at this point?
●      Do you have any helpful tips that you’ve picked up in this course or in a past course?
●      Do you have questions about the assignment that your classmates might be able to help with? (If you have a question for the instructor, be sure to contact your instructor through email or in the Ask Your Instructor Forum).
You are required to post at least 100 total words in this forum this week. You can post one time or ten times, the only requirements are that you post at least 100 words total and that you engage in conversation related to course content. Ask questions, answer questions, provide extra resources you found that are interesting, or engage in a debate about something you learned this week. The only requirement is that your comments have to relate to the course content.
Provide a full explanation of the issues that you discuss in your posts. For example, if you write that you had difficulty finding sources for your Final Project, explain where in the process of finding sources you had difficulty. Was it choosing a database to search? Thinking of search terms? Did your search return too many sources that were not relevant to your topic? Did your search return too few results?
 

Respond to Peers: Similarly, when responding to your classmates, be sure to elaborate. For example, if you write that you also found a specific topic interesting, explain what about that topic you found interesting and why. Is it the same aspects of the topic that your classmate found interesting? Were you unaware that events associated with the topic took place? Did the information that you learned change your understanding of those events?
 

 
If you have a question for your instructor, you should contact your instructor through email or in the Ask Your Instructor board. This Open Forum is a place for you to collaborate and connect with your classmates as well as support one another. Your instructor will monitor this board and may post, but he/she is not expected to answer all questions.
If you notice a classmate is struggling with something that you can help with, use your responses as a way to support them. Helping out your classmates will not only benefit them, but it will also help to solidify your own knowledge.
All of your participation in this forum is due before Day 7 of the week. Students who post early in the week, using this forum to engage their classmates on a regular basis, tend to do well and get more out of the course.
Do you have questions? Check out the FAQs on the Discussion Boards page.
 

 

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Ashford 3: – Week 2 – Instructor Guidance
 
 
HIS 206: United States History II
Instructor Guidance
Week 2
Welcome to the second week!  This week we will be looking at the Progressive Era and a new era of overseas imperialism. Your first assignment is also due this week! Please read the instructions carefully and be sure to look at Section 4.3 of you textbook “Analyzing Primary Source.”  Last week you were asked to choose a group for your Final Project.  As we work through the class, please keep the group that you chose in mind and be thinking about the events that you’d like to use for your Final Project.
 
This week we are looking at a lot of interesting history, and you will have a chance to try your hand at analysis in the assignment that is due on Day 7. Please read the instructions very carefully, as well as the section in this guidance about analysis, and contact me if you have any questions.
This week’s guidance will cover the following areas:

What is Analysis?
Checklist and Assignments for Week 2
Topics covered this week
Source list

What is Analysis?
 
 
Video Transcript
Go to top of page
Checklist and Assignments for Week 2


Week Two Learning Activities
Due Date

 
Review Announcements
Tuesday – Day 1

 
Review and reflect on Instructor Guidance
Tuesday – Day 1

 
Read Assigned Readings and View Assigned Videos
No later than Day 3

 
Post initial response to Discussion
Thursday – Day 3

 
Contribute 100 words to Discussion 2 – Open Forum
Monday – Day 7

 
Complete Skill Activity
Monday – Day 7

 
Post two responses to peers in Discussions 1 and 2
Monday – Day 7

 
Complete Week 2 Assignment: Interpreting Political Cartoons
Monday – Day 7

 
 
 
Go to top of page
Topics Covered This Week
Timeline

1867
U.S. Purchases Alaska from Russia and Annexes Midway Islands.

1887
U.S. signs reaty with sovereign nation of Hawaii allowing the U.S. to build a Naval base at Pearl Harbor.

1890
The McKinley Tariff raises taxes on sugar imported from Hawaii.

1890
The Sherman Antitrust Act prohibits monopolies and trusts, but is difficult to enforce.

February 1898
The USS Main explodes in Cuban waters.

April 1898
The Spanish-American War begins.

June 1898
The U.S. annexes Hawaii

December 1898
The U.S. wins Spanish American war. Spain cedes Guam and Puerto Rico, and the Philippines to the United States. Cuba is guaranteed independence but is occupied by the United States anyways.

1899 – 1902
The Philippine-American war lasts for three years after the U.S. annexes the Philippines.

1901
The U.S. Passes the Platt amendment stipulating the conditions for Cuban Independence.

1903
The U.S. acquires a 99-year lease on the Panama Canal Zone.

1904
The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine allows the U.S. to intervene in the affairs of any nation in the Western Hemisphere.

1906
The Pure Food and Drug act regulates meat inspection and the production of medicine.

1913
The 16th Amendment empowers congress to levy an income tax on Americans.

1913
The 17th Amendment provides for the direct election of U.S. senators.

1914
The Clayton Antitrust act strengthens the Sherman Antitrust Act.

1914 June 28
 Assassination of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand sparks hostilities that lead to WWI. WWI begins

1915 May 7
 German U-Boat sinks British liner Lusitania, killing 128 Americans.

1916
 The Keating-Owen Act fights child labor but is declared unconstitutional.

1917 January 19
 Germany sends Zimmerman telegram, urging Mexico to join Germany against the United States.

1917 April
 U.S. Congress declares war on Germany.

1918 January
 President Wilson proposes Fourteen Points for world peace.

1918 November 11
 WWI Ends.

1919 June 28
 The signing of the Treaty of Versailles.

 
 
 
US Imperialism
 
One of the results of the Industrial Revolution in Europe was that industrialized countries now needed raw materials for their industries. (England did not grow cotton, or tea!) and markets for their manufactured goods. This led to what is often called a wave of “New Imperialism” in which England France and other Europeans countries colonized almost all of Africa, India and South East Asia. It is important to understand the difference between Imperialism and colonialism.
Briefly:
Imperialism – is the political and economic domination of another country. Building an empire with or without control of country.
 
Colonialism is one extension of Imperialism when the country is taken over and controlled. An example of this is most of Africa and India.
 
The United States prefers Imperialism – remember it WAS a British Colony before American Revolution of 1775-1783. So it rarely practiced direct colonialism when the entire government is controlled by a foreign power.
Imperialism radically changed the subject lands, destroying their indigenous social, political, economic, and cultural structures, making not only difficult to win their independence but also to govern after independence.
Watch this short video on European imperialism in Africa
(2004)“European Imperialism in Africa.” Discovery Communications. Silver Spring, MD. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OJe1W_HIWmA
 
Although Americans dominated all of the land between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, Manifest Destiny was not dead.  Instead, attention turned to American expansion in Latin America, Asia and the Pacific.  Imperialism was underpinned by a belief in the “white man’s burden” to civilize less developed cultures.  However, opposition to imperialism existed in the United States and vocally denounced it on a variety of grounds.
Rudyard Kipling’s poem, “White Man’s Burden,” published in 1899 demonstrates how imperialism was connected to ideas about race.  It communicates the belief that non-whites were not civilized and were not capable of ruling themselves and that white men had a responsibility to take control over African and Asian nations in the interest of the native peoples.  You can read it here:
Kipling, R. (1899). “The White Man’s Burden” Retrieved October 20, 2014, from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5478/
See this list of Interventions in Latin America. http://www.yachana.org/teaching//resources/interventions.html
Keep in mind that the opening of the Panama Canal in 1914 would ensure that the US would be very involved in the region and want to make sure that its enforced security for the canal.
As we have seen racial lines were strongly drawn in the US and these ideas would be carried into the newly occupied lands.
To see what life was like during the building of the Panama Canal see this very interesting photo exhibit with captions.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/photo-gallery/panama-gallery/
The Progressive Movement
Jane Addams Collection. (1900). “Children Playing in Hull House, ca. 1900”.  Swarthmore College. Retrieved from http://www.swarthmore.edu/library/peace/Exhibits/janeaddams/hullhouse.htm
Although the Progressive movement was a more middle class (and less raucous) movement than Populism, it took over advocating for the poor and, as such, took a distinctly paternalistic attitude toward the poor.  They believed that many social ills could be eradicated by providing education and healthy work and living conditions.  They also believed that if Americans really knew about social problems like poverty, they would be immediately take action.  The Progressive movement advocated reforms throughout society, including an 8 hour work day, social health reform, and housing reform as well as the breakup of monopolies and Prohibition.  Progressivism was a movement rather than a party, with adherents belonging to both the Democratic and Republican parties.  Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson all won election to the presidency as Progressives.
Learn more about the Progressive movement here
http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/pwwmh/prog.htm
The Progressives believed that systematic reform would improve life for everyone.  They believed that if only immigrants were taught a better way of life, they would not continue to live in squalor and poverty. It was through settlement house, the most famous of which was Hull House, led by Jane Addams, that Progressive women attempted to improve the lives of the poor by providing child care and they taught English and the latest in housekeeping, childrearing, and nutrition.
It was the first political party to support women’s suffrage (right to vote).  They believed that poverty, illness and early death (for both children and women) could be significantly reduced in Americans had access to birth control and information about reproduction.  Disseminating information about reproduction and birth control was banned at the time by the Mann Act because it was viewed as obscene.  Eugenics, the belief that physically and mentally inferior people should not be allowed to have children in order to improve the overall health of the human race, was also commonly supported by Progressives, even to the point of supporting forced sterilization.  Most associated with access to birth control, eugenics, and even free love during this period is Margaret Sanger.
Learn more about women in the Progressive Era here
United States. National Park Service. (n.d.). Women and The Progressive Era. Retrieved October 20, 2014, from http://www.nps.gov/nr/travel/pwwmh/prog.htm
Watch a video on Margaret Sanger, a Progressive and early advocate of access to birth control here
 
RCC History. (2010).  “Margaret Sanger.” Richland Community College. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2i_sEWh9u-4
 
World War One
World War One, also known as the Great War and the War to end all Wars, began in June 1914 with the assassination of Arch Duke Ferdinand, the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in Sarajevo, Serbia.  The Austro-Hungarians immediately moved to attack Serbia, which prompted Russia to mobilize its troops in defense of Serbia.  Because of the complex and often secret mutual defense pacts between nations, a number of other nations (see table below) joined the conflict. Because of the number of nations involved and the amount of geographical area on which they fought, it was truly the first global war.

Central Powers
Allies

Germany
Britain

Austro-Hungary
Japan

Bulgaria
Italy (later)

Turkey (Ottoman Empire)
France

 
Russia (exited 1917 because of Russian Revolution)

 
Romania

 
United States (later, 1917)

 
 
 
Although Wilson wished for the United States to remain neutral and he campaigned on a promise to keep the United States out of the war, it did pick favorites by only selling weapons and providing material support to the Allies.  In 1915, German u-boats (submarines) sunk the Lusitania, a British steamship, carrying both civilians (and secretly) weapons destined for Britain.  The attack killed 124 Americans who were on board, causing a huge outcry in the United States.
In addition, the British intercepted the Zimmerman Telegram and turned it over to the United States in January 1917.  The Zimmerman Telegram was a communiqué from Germany to Mexico in which the German government offered its backing to Mexico if the Mexico would enter the war and attack the United States from the south.  The contents of the telegram was published by newspapers all over the United States, creating hostile feeling toward Mexico and pushing the United States closer to war.   A significant amount of propaganda was disseminated during the war, creating an atmosphere that was particularly hostile to those of German descent and that demonized anyone who questioned the US involvement in the war.
New technologies played a major role in making World War I one of the bloodiest wars in history.  Chemical weapons, tanks, machine guns, airplane delivered bombs were first used in World War I and they changed the nature of modern warfare.  In addition, the battles in World War I were characterized by trench warfare.  Essentially, soldiers dug trenches in which they lived, fought, and died for months and years.  This created a stalemate in which each battle was simply a matter of fighting over a few feet of land.  Hygiene was obviously an issue in trench warfare but so was the fact that the soldiers were stuck in the trenches for so long without a respite.
The entrance of the United States into the war brought an infusion of both soldiers, food, and weapons that tipped the balance in the favor of the Allies.  The United States declared war in April 1917 and just a little more than a year later, November 1918, the war ended with an armistice.  The United States emerged from WWI as a world power.
The treaty that ended the war, the Treaty of Versailles, remains controversial.  It attempted to reconcile the desires of the Big Four (the United States, Britain, France, and Russia).  It forced Germany to accept blame for the war and to agree to pay massive reparations, which is often pointed to a major cause of World War II.  In addition, the Ottoman Empire was divided up between France and Britain, leaving Turkey (which became a republic) a The borders of these Mandates were drawn according to the will of the Allied nations, without reference to traditional borders or ethnic territories.
Watch this short video on the Treaty of Versailles
History is Happening. (2008). Paris Peace Conference.  Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ShRA8HRMR4Q
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Sources
Barnes, L. & Bowles, M. (2014). The American story: Perspectives and encounters from 1877. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
 
Sinclair, U. (1906). Chapter nine. In The Jungle. Retrieved from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5727/
 
The progressive era. In R. Hawksworth (Executive producer), America in the 20th Century. Retrieved from https://secure.films.com/OnDemandEmbed.aspx?Token=36215&aid=18596&Plt=FOD&loid=0&w=640&h=480&ref=
 
Wood, S. (Writer & Producer). (2010). To conquer or redeem [Series episode]. In G. Lucas (Executive producer), Manifest Destiny. Retrieved from https://secure.films.com/OnDemandEmbed.aspx?Token=51868&aid=18596&Plt=FOD&loid=0&w=640&h=480&ref=
 
Zecker, R. M. (2009). “Let each reader judge”: Lynching, race, and immigrant newspapers. Journal of American Ethnic History, 29(1), 31-66. Retrieved from the http://www.press.uillinois.edu/journals/jaeh.html
 
Bauer, C. (Writer). (1990). Upton Sinclair: The jungle [Video file]. Retrieved from https://secure.films.com/OnDemandEmbed.aspx?Token=11747&aid=18596&Plt=FOD&loid=0&w=640&h=480&ref=
 
Chicago Historical Society. (2001). The stockyards [Virtual exhibit]. Retrieved from http://ww
 

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On 16th of January 1920, the United States of America made an amendment to their constitution which was passed unanimously. The adjustment which is commonly known to many as the Eighteenth Amendment aimed to outlaw the sale, manufacture, making, transportation, and consumption of alcohol in the United States and its territories.  The prohibition mainly targeted men who were said to be known usual consumers of alcoholic drinks.The move resulted in more problems than it was projected to solve. Supporters of the prohibition came up with a hypothesis which argued that making alcohol illegal would improve people’s quality of life and on the other hand strengthening the country’s economy, reducing crime, poverty, and deaths related to alcohol. The idea of banning alcohol was not a new concept. It is known that even before the Eighteenth Amendment was passed, many states in the US had adopted a law that was very similar to it. The majority of people perceived alcohol as a great satanic act and believed that if there existed a law that is totally against alcohol, and gets as far as making it completely illegal, then it would make the United States a greater and sober society as a whole.
The Eighteenth Amendment was a result of prohibition movements which in the previous years had sprung up across the whole of United Sates, motivated by religious groupings who deliberatively considered consumption of alcohol a serious threat to the country (Hamm, 2013). The very first temperance regulation took place in 1838 in the form of a Massachusetts law barring the sale of spirits in less than 15-gallon quantities. Though it was retracted two years later, Maine is said to have passed the first state illegalization law in the year 1846, and by the time the Civil War began, some other states had followed suit. Women movement also seriously called for the abolition of the sale and consumption of alcohol. In the fight, they were also joined by the powerful Anti-Saloon League which was founded in 1893 in Ohio State but later grew into a national organization that unequivocally endorsed political aspirants and pushed for legislation against saloons. Advocates of prohibition used speeches, advertisement and public demonstrations to convince people that eradicating alcohol from the community would help to wipe poverty and social vices like immoral behavior and physical violence. The objective of the movement was achieved in the year 1920 when Congress approved the 18th Amendment.
The Eighteenth Amendment was positive because it helped to minimize alcohol-related consequences. It was influential in decreasing deaths and illnesses caused by the consumption of a significant amount of alcohol. Between 1915 and 1925 the rate of deaths from cirrhosis, a chronic liver disease caused by alcoholism, gone down by almost fifty percent. Additionally, as a result of prohibition, the rate of deaths caused by consumption of alcohol decreased by eighty percent from levels before the world war by 1921. This drop in deaths and diseases was significant because it meant that the adverse effects that alcohol had on the country’s health were becoming less purely because of Prohibition. However, even though the prohibition Amendment helped to reduce consequences related to alcohol, ultimately this legislation should not have been enacted given that it led to more organized crimes and a major increase in economic difficulties (Beyer, 2016).
Under prohibition, there was increased and widespread illegal manufacture and sale of liquor known as bootlegging in the United States. The majority of people in urban areas vehemently opposed the ban. As a result, enforcement was weaker compared to smaller towns and rural areas. Conceivably, the most dramatic outcome of the embargo was the effect it had on organized crime the US. That said, alcohol production and sale went more underground to the extent that the business began to be controlled by mafia and other gangs who converted themselves into stylish criminal enterprises that reaped huge profits from the illegal trade.
Following the booming bootleg business, the mafia became more skilled at giving bribe to the police and politicians so as to look the other way. Towns like Chicago’s Al Capone arose as the most notorious replica of this phenomenon. Additionally, gambling and prostitution heightened during the 1920s as well. The number of Americans blaming the ban for extensive moral decay and syndrome became bigger. This is contrary to the fact that the intention of the legislation was to do the opposite. Those against the prohibition condemned it as a treacherous infringement on the individual rights and freedoms.
In case sentiment from the public had turned against the ban by the late 1920s, the beginning of the Great Depression only hastened its demise, given that some claimed that outlawing of alcohol deprived unemployed Americans of their jobs and denied much-needed revenue to the government. To the public disillusionment, efforts of the impartial group Americans Against Prohibition Association (AAPA) added. In the year 1932, the stage of Democratic presidential hopeful Franklin Roosevelt comprised a board for repealing the eighteenth amendment. Roosevelt’s resounding victory in the November elections marked an untimely end to prohibition. The resolution proposing the 21st Amendment to the Constitution was adopted by the Congress in February 1933. This showed the repealing of the eighteenth amendment (Brown, 2017). The resolution required state conventions as opposed to the state legislatures to approve the amendment. This helped to reduce the procedure to a one-state-one-vote referendum contrary to a popular vote contest.
 
 
Reference
 
Hamm, R. F. (2013). Shaping the Eighteenth Amendment: temperance reform, legal culture, and the polity, 1880-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Beyer, M. (2016). Temperance and prohibition: the movement to pass anti-liquor laws in America. New York: Rosen Central Primary Source.
Brown, E. S. (2017). Ratification of the twenty-first amendment to the Constitution of the United States: state convention records and laws. Clark, NJ: The Lawbook Exchange.

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DIRECTIONS FOR TAKE-HOME ESSAY
 
Dear History 12 Student:
 
The take-home essay (3-5 pages) will be accepted only through Canvas.
 
For the final essay, due on Week 14 by 11:59pm, use the following two primary sources to answer the prompts below:
 
1) 18th Amendment
 
2) 21th Amendment
 
Prompt: When the 18th Amendment passed in 1920, the U.S. government made it illegal to buy, sell, and make alcohol in this country.  Throughout the 1920’s, most of the general public made it aware that they were not excited about this amendment, which eventually led to its repeal in 1933 by the 21st amendment. Trace the history of these two amendments using the questions below as guides. Be sure to write you essay in the traditional scholarly essay format. A proper essay should contain an introduction with a thesis statement, several body paragraphs, and a concluding paragraph with several outside, reliable research sources to support your arguments. Do Not Use Wikipedia.
 
Provide the context for each primary source within its historical era. Consider answering these questions:

What year did these amendments take place?
What do the amendments generally state?
Who approved/pushed for the 18th amendment, and why (e.g. temperance movements, anti-immigrant feelings, religious revivalism, Anti-Saloon League)?
Who approved/pushed for the 21st amendment, and why (e.g. failure to enforce sobriety, few law enforcement officers, cost of enforcing, the rise of organized crime, etc.)?

Analyze the primary sources to evaluate the significance across time in history. For example, consider these questions:

What has changed from the first amendment to the second?
What were the factors that brought about this change?

Analyze the historical impact on diverse groups. Consider answering the following questions:

Who were mainly persecuted/targeted under the 18th amendment?

Is there a specific population (e.g. immigrants, Germans, Irish)?
Were the targeted mainly men? How about women? On which side of the argument were women mostly on? Why?

 
The final papers will be evaluated according to the grading rubric at the end of this document.
 
Please reference your textbook and lecture notes to write your essays and use only reliable academic writing (e.g. academic websites, books, academic articles and journals).
Make sure to cite your sources according to MLA or Chicago/Turabian writing manuals. Also, review East Los Angeles College’s library definition of plagiarism by clicking here. Remember, if you use more than three sequential words of another person, website, etc, cite the author. If you paraphrase an original idea or concept of another, cite the author.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GRADING RUBRIC
 
 
 

 
0 = Unsatisfactory (F}
1       = Unsatisfactory (D)
2 = Satisfactory  (C)
3 = Good/Excellent  (A-B)

1.        Describes historical/
temporal context
No response, or fails to describe context
Demonstrates limited understanding of context; and/or only provides context for one primary source
 
Demonstrates basic understanding of context for both primary sources
Demonstrates advanced understanding of context for both primary sources

2.        Evaluates
Significance
No response, or fails to evaluate significance
Limited understanding of
motivation for writing and impact of primary source documents; and/or only provides evaluation for one primary source
Basic understanding of motivation for writing and impact of both primary source documents
Advanced understanding of motivation for writing and impact of both primary source documents

3.        Writes coherently
Incoherent writing
Incoherence or insufficient answer. Student provides lists of items as opposed to an essay.
Writing is coherent but lacks focus (too general} and limited elaboration (examples/facts)
Writing flows and is organized logically. Arguments are clear and convincing.

4.        Diversity
No mention of a diverse group within the analysis of the document
A diverse group mentioned but little or no connection established between the diverse group and the content, context, or significance of the document
Some understanding of the impact of the document on diverse group(s) made, but connections not fully explained nor well linked
A thorough analysis of one or more diverse groups incorporated into the analysis of the content, context, and significance of the document

5.        Change over time
Only one primary source analyzed.
A comparison between two documents completed but the response fails to include analysis
A comparison between two documents included and some discussion regarding content, context and significance of the documents attempted but not fully clarified
A thorough comparison and contrast between the primary documents examining similarities and differences of the documents’ content, context and significance that illustrates change in history over time

 

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