Questions and Evaluation Criteria for AIS 101 Doughnut Extravaganza
All of your answers must be double-spaced, 12 point font, with 1” margins. Each answer must be between 1 and 2 pages in length.
Your answer to each question is worth 20 points and will be graded based on the following criteria: 1) how well you answered all aspects of the question; 2) use of specific examples to support your essay when asked to do so, 3) quality of writing (how well did you express your ideas?) and organization (introduction, body, and conclusion), and 4) correct referencing and citation of sources. Grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors, or failure to staple paper will result in deductions.
You may only use material presented in lecture or assigned readings. Use of other sources or two students whose work is so similar it is obvious they did not work independently will result in a 0/80 with the potential for further disciplinary action.
All published sources must be cited in text and referenced in a bibliography on a separate page at the end of your exam. In text citations should be in done as in the following example — Archaeological inference requires data to support it (Snow 2010:5). Use page numbers when appropriate. Try to avoid using direct quotes from published sources. Paraphrase ideas in your own words as much as possible. Excessive use of the exact wording of the authors will result in a lower score.
The text of your essays must be double-spaced but the references in your bibliography should be single spaced.
Your bibliography of cited references must be on a separate page and in the following format:
Snow, Dean R
2010 Archaeology of Native North America. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
1997 ch. 2, Red Earth, White Lies, Native American and the Myth of Scientific Fact. Fulcrum
Publishing, Golden Colorado.
1963 Part I, “The Myths: Creation of the Four Worlds,” The Book of the Hopi. Penguin
Books. New York, New York
2007 ch 2, “With the aid of May-May, Klose-kur-beh destroyed the Serpent.-The Sea
Voyage,” The Life and Traditions of the Red Man. Duke University Press, Durham, North
In class lecture material should be cited in the text as (Neal Endacott, Marna Carroll, or Sharron Connor personal communication 2012). Personal Communication is cited in text but not the bibliography). Just cite one of our three names depending on who gave the lecture.
Your questions are:
1. Construct an argument for how long people have been in the Americas. Support your answer with archaeological data from Siberia, Alaska, the lower forty-eight states, and South America. Be sure to specifically address the Clovis first argument and also include pertinent paleoenvironmental data.
2. Using the readings from Book of the Hopi and The Life and Traditions of the Red Man (Nicolar), address/discuss the concept of worldview. Based on your understanding of the two readings and on the lectures, how do Native American people organize the world? How is time conceptualized (thought of)? How are the parts of the world-plants, animals, geographic forms etc. etc. related? What does a person in one of these cultures do to live properly? What are some of the key relationships or roles for men and women? Finally, how does this view differ from your own understanding of the world (just pick one or two points of comparison).
**Suggestions: Build from the 1st and 2nd sentence to create the thesis/ theme of the whole essay. Re-work each subsequent question as the topic sentence for a new paragraph. You should end up w/ a 5 paragraph, 1 ½ to 2 page essay. As for supporting information, the key word here is Specificity. Use specific examples from the readings and be clear about which reading it is from. For example, you say : “American Indian people organize the world……blah blah blah. In the Book of the Hopi, the such and such does so and so which proves what I just said. This is also seen in Nicolar, etc etc…”
3. Analyze the following story using the process described in the Oral Tradition lecture. Follow each of the five steps. In addition, discuss the theme[s] presented.
BIRCH TREE and WOODPECKER
The birch tree suffered enormously from the itch, he squirmed; he writhed in discomfort. Though he had numerous limbs, arms and fingers, he could not scratch. There was nothing the birch tree could do to relieve his sufferings. In his agony the poor birch called out to the squirrels and porcupines and beavers to pick out the ticks, grubs, and beetles that were tormenting him. But the squirrels and porcupines and beavers were too busy to offer any help. The best they could do was to give their sympathy without limit. Next the birch called out to the birds. They too felt sorry for the birch, but they could do nothing. Only the woodpeckers came to help. Coming to the aid of the poor tree the downy woodpecker, his cousin, the red-headed woodpecker, the flicker and the chickadee all picked every pest from beneath the bark of the birch. The birch tree ceased itching.
Many years later the woodpeckers were in distress. Not knowing what to do or from whom they could find help, they, at last came to the birch and related a sad story. In the long rainless spell, the woodpeckers were dying from thirst. The woodpeckers were unable to drink from the pools and lakes and streams, like other birds could.“Could,” they asked, “you do something?”
The birch remembering the help that he had received from the
woodpeckers said to them, “Go to my trunk and drill two holes near each other and they will presently fill up with my sap.”The desperate woodpeckers flew down and drummed away at the trunk of the tree, until they had drilled two tiny holes. Almost immediately the holes began to fill up and yield a rich flow of sap. Thirstily, the woodpeckers drank and they have been drinking from the trees since that time.
Part II. Short essay. Five questions are set out below. Answer four (4) of the following in a paragraph format. Answers should be about ½ page in length. (5 points ea.)
A. What is archaeology? What are the goals of the discipline? Identify and describe the three levels of archaeological theory. Provide an example of the type of study or studies associated with each level. The best answer will use examples from actual archaeological research discussed in the readings or lectures.
B. Identify and explain the reasons behind why many Indigenous people tend to distrust anthropologists and archaeologists. How have some of these issues been addressed?
C. Define philosophy. Identify the three conditions that must be met for the definition to fit.
D. Explain how we can know that both oral and written history have equal validity through the form of an argument by analogy. Address the two premises of the argument. Using the Deloria reading, explain why oral tradition is not more accepted by Western scientists.
E. Describe and contrast human adaptations in the Paleoindian and Archaic periods in North America. Identify the role of environmental change in the cultural adaptations reflected in the archaeological record. Be sure to include human interaction with plants and identify how this foreshadows plant domestication.
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