# PHIL102 Assignment Four

PHIL102  Assignment Four
Answer ALL the following questions. Questions 2, 3, 4 are multiple choice. In each case of a multiple choice question, exactly one possible answer is correct. Tick just one.
***
PART I   PROBABLE INFERENCES
Question 1. (2.5 POINTS)
Give a one-sentence answer to the following question:
QUESTION:
Why is an inference with a probability of less than 50% worse than uselesss?
Question 2. (2.5 POINTS)
Re-read the beginning of Section ‘Relevant Evidence’ on pp.12-13 of Topic Notes 3 (pdf file). Stop reading when you reach Example 31.
As we know from the beginning of Section ‘Relevant Evidence’, in relation to Example 29 (p.12) there could be further evidence which, without contradicting the premises, would prevent the inference in Example 29 from being a rational one.
Is the same true in relation to Example 29* below? That is: Could there be further evidence which, without contradicting the premises, would prevent the inference in Example 29* from being a rational one?
Example 29*:
(P 1)  100% of women are under 700 cm tall.
(P2)   Mary is a woman.
(C)    So Mary is under 700 cm tall.
(a)    Yes
(b)    No
Question 3. (1.5 POINTS)
Is the inference in Example 29* deductively valid?
(a)    Yes
(b)     No
Question 4. (1.5 POINTS)
Select the correct continuation of the statement below:
In an inference with a probability of 43%,
(a) the premises support the conclusion to some extent but not as strongly as in an inference with a probability 68%
(b) the premises support neither the conclusion nor its negation
(c) the premises support the negation of the conclusion
(d) the premises support both the conclusion and its negation
PART II   ARGUMENT EVALUATION
Question 5. (22 POINTS)
Analyse and evaluate the argument that is contained in the passage below .
In particular, do the following:
Step 1: Answer the question ‘What am I being asked to accept or believe?’ In the light of your answer, find the author’s main conclusion.
Step 2: Answer the following questions
{2.1} ‘Are there good grounds for accepting this conclusion?’
{2.2} ‘Does it cohere with my existing knowledge?’
{2.3} ‘Is there counter-evidence for the claim expressed in this conclusion?’
Step 3: Find the premises from which the main conclusion is immediately inferred – that is, the premises which seem pretty obviously to be immediate reasons why you should accept the conclusion
Step 4: Write down the inference from the premises found at Step 3 to the main conclusion
Step 5: In relation to the inference mentioned in Step 4, answer the following questions
{5.1} ‘Are the premises of the inference true?’
{5.2} ‘Does this premise (those premises) provide an acceptable degree of support for the conclusion?’
{5.3} ‘Does the information or evidence that the author adduces in favour of this premise (those premises) seem plausible, given my background knowledge about the area?’
{5.4} ‘Is there counter-evidence for the claims expressed by this premise (those premises)?’
Step 6: In the light of the results of your Steps 1 to 5, decide whether to accept or reject the main conclusion and then give a brief explanation of your decision.
***
It seems to me to be clear that there is really no such thing as crime, as the word is generally understood. Every activity of man should come under the head of “behavior.” In studying crime we are merely investigating a certain kind of human behavior. Human beings act in response to outside stimuli. How they act depend on the nature, strength, and inherent character of their bodies and minds and the habits, customs, inhibitions and experiences that environment gives them. Human beings are in no sense the makers of themselves, and they have no more power than any machine to escape the law of cause and effect. They do as they must. Therefore, there is no such thing as moral responsibility in the sense in which this expression is ordinarily used.
***
Evaluation Scheme for Question 5
Maximum mark
1    Answer the question ‘What am I being asked to accept or believe?’ In the light of your answer, find the author’s main conclusion.    3.2
2    Answer the following questions <…>    4.9
3    Find the premises from which the main conclusion is immediately inferred – that is, the premises which seem pretty obviously to be immediate reasons why you should accept the conclusion    3.3
4    Write down the inference from the premises found at Step 3 to the main conclusion    2.4
5    In relation to the inference mentioned in Step 4, answer the following questions<…>    3.3
6    In the light of the results of your Steps 1 to 5, decide whether to accept or reject the main conclusion and then give a brief explanation of your decision.    4.9
Total maximum mark:    22

# Our Service Charter

1. ### Excellent Quality / 100% Plagiarism-Free

We employ a number of measures to ensure top quality essays. The papers go through a system of quality control prior to delivery. We run plagiarism checks on each paper to ensure that they will be 100% plagiarism-free. So, only clean copies hit customers’ emails. We also never resell the papers completed by our writers. So, once it is checked using a plagiarism checker, the paper will be unique. Speaking of the academic writing standards, we will stick to the assignment brief given by the customer and assign the perfect writer. By saying “the perfect writer” we mean the one having an academic degree in the customer’s study field and positive feedback from other customers.
2. ### Free Revisions

We keep the quality bar of all papers high. But in case you need some extra brilliance to the paper, here’s what to do. First of all, you can choose a top writer. It means that we will assign an expert with a degree in your subject. And secondly, you can rely on our editing services. Our editors will revise your papers, checking whether or not they comply with high standards of academic writing. In addition, editing entails adjusting content if it’s off the topic, adding more sources, refining the language style, and making sure the referencing style is followed.
3. ### Confidentiality / 100% No Disclosure

We make sure that clients’ personal data remains confidential and is not exploited for any purposes beyond those related to our services. We only ask you to provide us with the information that is required to produce the paper according to your writing needs. Please note that the payment info is protected as well. Feel free to refer to the support team for more information about our payment methods. The fact that you used our service is kept secret due to the advanced security standards. So, you can be sure that no one will find out that you got a paper from our writing service.
4. ### Money Back Guarantee

If the writer doesn’t address all the questions on your assignment brief or the delivered paper appears to be off the topic, you can ask for a refund. Or, if it is applicable, you can opt in for free revision within 14-30 days, depending on your paper’s length. The revision or refund request should be sent within 14 days after delivery. The customer gets 100% money-back in case they haven't downloaded the paper. All approved refunds will be returned to the customer’s credit card or Bonus Balance in a form of store credit. Take a note that we will send an extra compensation if the customers goes with a store credit.
5. ### 24/7 Customer Support

We have a support team working 24/7 ready to give your issue concerning the order their immediate attention. If you have any questions about the ordering process, communication with the writer, payment options, feel free to join live chat. Be sure to get a fast response. They can also give you the exact price quote, taking into account the timing, desired academic level of the paper, and the number of pages.

Excellent Quality
Zero Plagiarism
Expert Writers

or

Instant Quote