Female Imprisonment rates are increasing. You are required to (1) Identify the extent of this increase in Australia generally and provide statistical evidence (2) Discuss the reasons for this increase (3) Outline how the needs of female prisoners differ from males and how these needs are best addressed in prison.
Outline of what to include in the essay.
Female Imprisonment rates are increasing. Include this hypothesis in the introduction. Have this statement backed up by stating the major research studies conducted over a period ( last decade or so ) in Australia. State the major statistical evidence found about female imprisonment rates in generally in Australia. State how this will be discussed further and in more depth in the body of the essay, by looking deeper and comparing / contrasting this increase in each state/city in Australia. Also, list the major reasons that are identified for this increase in the introduction and state how they will be discussed further in the body of the essay. As well how female Aboriginal prisoners do contribute to the increasing female Imprisonment rates. State the specific international counties used for compare/contrast.
Also, list the common needs of female prisoners, how these needs are different to males, how they are exactly addressed by prisons in Australia, and in indigenous communities and how all this will be discussed further in greater detail in the body of the essay. And any other major parts that I missed out that should be stated in introduction as can later see it’s an important part mentioned in the body of the essay.
Body: around 2200 words
A)This part strictly only focuses on research study findings within Australia.
Go into In-depth and further detail about the statement; female imprisonment rates are increasing. Include statistical findings across the country. Start off with general statistical information of the number of female imprisonment rates in Australia. State how there has been an increase of females in prison in the past decade or so in Australia and why this is, the reasons behind it exactly.
B) This part strictly only focuses on research study findings within Australia.
Then continue by stating briefly female prisoners statistics in each state and or major cities breakdown and mention major statistical evidence, and then compare, the numbers, % the statistics across all seven cities/states in Australia. Explain briefly the reasons as to why there is may be more or why there is less female prisoners in some cities, states to others.
– IF, for example, findings conclude that the statistical evidence research findings in Australia show most cities / states have less female imprisonment rates and only couple locations/ major cities have significant increased rates , to successfully back up hypothesis, still will need to state that, as a result of these major findings , Australia as whole is still seeing an overall increasing rate of female imprisonment ( based on those major findings in those particular cities / states that makeup the increased female prison rates )
Then, do all that just mentioned in first part of (C) again for Aboriginal women in prison. But just real brief. Note, aboriginal /indigenous women in prison is NOT the main focus here) But is essential and does need to be mentioned, though when writing about aboriginal female prisoners, clearly identify the research studies and statistical evidence % within the indigenous communities as they do have their separate prison systems which are different to normal Australian prisons for all other Australian females. So make sure to keep the statistical information for female Australian prisoners in Australia separately to aboriginal women in Australia which are again indigenous aboriginal females in prison within their own indigenous communities, usually. State if otherwise.
Note. The only time to link all them together in the one category is when stating the reason why it is necessary and important for aboriginal women in prisons to be mentioned, and that’s basically ( through whatever research findings above ) female aboriginal, indigenous prisoners contribute to the increasing female Imprisonment rates in Australia.
C) Discuss the reasons for this increase further by looking at international countries. Identify, state and compare /contrast with other countries ( such as America, Britain, New Zealand ) Include major statistical findings then describe how these other countries have an even more increased amount of female prisoners or a reduced amount compared to Australia and why. State the actual reasons not just statistical evidence on its own. Go into greater detail here. Also always identify where your sources are from (e.g. US research has identified…).
D) this section does not need any number % statistical information or evidence.
Outline how the needs of female prisoners and how they differ from males. Describe exactly what those women needs are. Give examples. State how this arises difficulties for females in prison rather than male prisoners. Cite reliable research studies and identify how prisoners in Australia and compare /contrast with prisons in other countries ( such as America, Britain, New Zealand )Also always identify where your sources are from (e.g. US research has identified…). take into account female prisoners, how prison systems organise (and describe the ) procedures in place especially to address the specific needs of females in prisons. Or how they don’t. Again compare /contrast with other countries where relevant ( such as America, Britain, New Zealand ) Also always identify where your sources are from (e.g. US research has identified…).
ALSO. Briefly, state aboriginal, indigenous women in prison. Identify if this is the same for aboriginal women in indigenous communities. Compare and contrast briefly on the experiences of Aboriginal women in prison and if their needs are met, if they get more or less or if any looking after at all with their specific needs. If prisons (state which ones) if any ) or state none does if no prisons in indigenous communities have any kind of polices to acknowledge female Aboriginal prisoners and their needs as a female, again briefly.
Conclude; Main points, research findings, studies, statistical information. Conclude: All Main reasons identified, stated, described etc etc etc
I have selected 25 references though this is just an approximation. You may find that this paper may need more or less, but no less than 22. For maximum 2500 word essay.
Mainly Australian Academic/Scholarly journal articles Unless otherwise stated specific parts in body that allows welcomes international sources. (Tip; use google scholar).
Include majority of academic journal articles that are peer reviewed. (Tip; make use of journal databases that allow you to limit your search to just peer reviewed Australian articles).
Search in the following journal article finder databases below
Ulrich’s Periodical Directory is a database which provides information about published journals, including status as a scholarly, academic journal. http://ulrichsweb.serialssolutions.com.libraryproxy.griffith.edu.au/
library catalogue for Peer reviewed journal articles and scholarly journal articles
APA 6th edition referencing style
No direct quotation. Everything is paraphrased.
After each sentence and or paragraph where information is cited from a different journal article, include in brackets author and year. Page number may be required and will need to be included but only if one particular page was summarised.
Example: Paraphrasing (page numbers may be required):
When a student internalises information in order to make connections with their prior learning this points to a qualitatively higher level of engagement (Buckridge & Guest, 2007).
If citing a source which has been cited within another journal article document:
mention the original source together with the secondary reference details,
for example: (Smith, 2008, as cited in Jones, 2010).
Only the secondary reference (i.e. Jones, 2010) should be included in the reference list. So the “secondary” reference IS THE Journal article that you’re actually reading then you see another authors name cited in that article journal that you’re reading ( so its classified as the original source ) and needs to be included too in as an in-text reference but not in the reference list.
For The reference list, the order for journal articles
Title of journal article
Doi if none assigned, URL/ web address
Buckridge, M., & Guest, R. (2007). A conversation about pedagogical responses to increased diversity in university classrooms. Higher Education Research & Development, 26(2), 133-146. doi:10.1080/07294360701310771 .
Where it’s a Books online / eBook electronic version of print book (without DOI)
Paraphrasing (page numbers may be required):
Critical theory in education involves the student empowering themselves by uncovering all the opposing aspects of a social and/or cultural issue (Quinnan, 1997).
Reference list Entry:
NB. If no digital object identifier (DOI) is assigned to the content include home page URL.
Quinnan, T. (1997). Adult students “at-risk”: Culture bias in higher education [CEIRC NetLibrary version]. Retrieved from http://www.netlibrary.com
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