Topic: Critical appraisal essay (how effective are diet and exercise in managing type2 diabetes)
Write an essay which answers your research/clinical question using 10- 15 additional papers.
• Make sure you examine the issue/s from different sides and provide evidence to support your arguments.
• Your paper should be 1500 +/- 10% (excluding references) and presented as follows:
The introduction should conclude with your research question i.e. this is the aim of your paper.
• Introduction: Include some general background information on the topic you chose for your research /clinical question (~150 words) Example: Type 2 diabetes is ……. xx% of Australian s aged over 18 are diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes each year. ……………….Treatment includes medication and lifestyle interventions such as diet and exercise……………… The aim of this paper is to explore nursing interventions which can be used to manage Type 2 diabetes.
• Body: Answer your question supporting your points/arguments with the literature you appraised (10-15 papers) (~ 3-6 paragraphs, 700 words)
• Discussion: Write about what you consider to be the implications of the research findings for nursing practice and how you think the findings can be used for research and/or clinical practice. (~ 500 words)
• Conclusion: Did you answer your question? What conclusions did you draw in respect to the question? What are the implications? (~150 words).
This is a general guide only
Introduction: A few sentences about your topic to set the scene – could include definition/s, the prevalence of the issue in various settings (countries, wards, institutions); risk/contributory factors; main issues to be covered in the essay. The introduction should conclude with your research question i.e. this is the aim of your paper.
Body of the essay: 3-5 paragraphs on the topic. Each paragraph covers a particular aspect of the topic. Each paragraph begins with a topic sentence and ends with a linking sentence. Writing paragraphs is like making a route map of your essay. If the route map is clear, then your reader won’t get lost in the essay. The reader will know where they are in the essay, where they’ve been and where they are going next.
For example, in this made up example of an essay about what determines academic success at university, you might divide your essay like this: (topic sentences are highlighted in yellow and linking sentences are highlighted in green to show what we mean).
Paragraph 1: Governments around the world are concerned about the high number of university students who do not complete their degrees. An Australian Government report showed that a third of first year students in Australia failed to pass their units and withdrew from tertiary study (White, Red, Brown & Yellow, 2010). Longitudinal research shows that the proportion of students leaving university before completing their studies has not changed over the past three decades (Smith & Jones 2011). In 1985, theses authors showed that 31% of students withdrew from their courses, while in 2015, 33% of students withdrew before completing their degrees (Smith & Jones, 2010). These findings are echoed in other countries (Large, 2011; Small, 2013).To determine why attrition is so high, it is necessary to determine which factors affect a student’s success at university.
Paragraph 2: Factors affecting a university student’s academic success include socio-demographic factors; tertiary entrance scores; intrinsic motivation and attendance at lectures and tutorials (Smith & Jones, 2014; Foote and Fleet, 2015; Green & Brown; 2011). Socio-demographic factors include………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Previous educational attainment is also a significant predictor of success at university.
Paragraph 3: Research shows that students who received higher tertiary entrance scores were more likely to complete their degree (Smith & Jones, 2014; Foote and Fleet, 2015). However, Little et al (2013) showed that students with lower entrance scores who accessed academic support services at university were just as likely as those with higher scores to pass their units (White et al, 2012). More research examples —————————————————————————————————— Research shows that there is a relationship between academic scores and motivation.
Paragraph 4: Students who were motivated to learn were more likely to complete their degrees. Factors that motivate students include their home environment, the university environment, peer suupport and interest in the topic. Smith and Jones (2010) in their cohort study of 520 first year engineering students in Baltimore USA, found that students who reported being supported in their choices by family and friends were 3.2 times as likely as those who reported lack of family/friend support to success (95% CI 1.7 – 4.5). Currie (2016), in a cross sectional study of first year nursing students in Canberra, Australia found that students who attended tutorials were significantly more likely to pass their assignments than those who did not (p=0.005).
Discussion: This is all about implications of the research findings – for the individual (patient, nurse, student etc.) and the organisation (hospital, nursing home, university etc).
Conclusion: summarises what you have found and concluded. Does not contain references. Should relate directly to your research question.
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